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with its blue berries, the Silver Eleagnus, the vigorous Japan Privet, the Dwarf Horse Chestnut, the Purple Daphne, the autumnal tints of Khus Osbeckii, the Japan Snowball, and the various Weigeleas were all unknown.
The dwarf Spruces, and Pines, and Firs, and Arbor vitaes, and Junipers, and Yews, and Retinosporas, and Pyracanthas were many of them unknown, and others rarely seen.
Weeping evergreens then were scarcely known; now, among weeping trees, we have two Spruces, several Junipers, an Arbor vitae, a columnlike Silver fir, whose drooping branches hug the stem, and a Hemlock which is an evergreen fountain, and of marked beauty. Then again, there are thousands of varieties of Roses formerly unknown. The old June rose is surpassed by the brilliancy of Jacqueminot, and the golden beauty of Marshal Neil was then undreamed.
The Kalmia or laurel, abundant in some woods, was scarcely seen in gardens, and the American Holly was very rare.
Then, within a few years, have come in the remarkable acquisitions from Japan, hardy, vigorous, and of surprising beauty in both foliage and flower. The blue Daphne genkwa, the silvery white Eleagnus longipes, the variegated Ash, the Daimian oak, and all the charming Retinosporas, including the Golden, which bids fair to be popular as the most showy evergreen hedge plant known.
None of the introductions from Japan, however, promise to be so popular as the Japanese Maples.
They have proved perfectly hardy during ten of our severest winters, and they are constant in their colors under our hottest suns. Dwarf in their habit, they are adapted to town yards or cemetery lots, or for grouping on a large lawn. There are many varieties; some with highly colored leaves, from a pure white variegation to pink and dark purple, and others deeply cut, like lace. A single plant will bring out an exclamation of pleasure. A mass of them is a thing to be remembered. Among the luxuries of modern times, prepared for him who
• Wraps the drapery of his couch about him,
And lies down to pleasant dreams," are cemeteries. These are generally laid out with taste, but planted without regard to taste or expediency, excepting in the case of Laurel Hill and one or two others, which have been controlled by men of culture.
The chief fault is too great an abundance of large trees, the roots of which permeate everywhere, and prevent the introduction of small plants.
In a cemetery lot nothing should be planted but the weeping trees and the most compact shrubs. The dwarf evergreens, the rhododendrons, the azaleas, and the weeping evergreens are particularly adapted to it.
The same remarks will apply to town gardens, which you will frequently see filled up with two or three large maples, and many trashy shrubs, while all the beautiful things which might be there are neglected. All this can be corrected only by informing the people.
I spoke to you of the possibilities of horticulture, possibilities which many of you may think are only dreams; and yet, forty years' experience of the habit and growth of trees, leads me to hope that my dreams may yet be chrystalized into realities.
May I dream to you of an ideal country home? It shall be fifty acresenough for pasture and wood land, for garden and field. The wood land should consist of all the ornamental deciduous trees known, while all the shrubs and evergreen trees should form outlying points and arms, or be scattered about in groups and single specimens.
A rustling brook, over rocks and stones, by winding courses, should come from a source high enough to give fountains and cascades, and on its sloping banks should be masses of rhododendrons and azaleas.
Hedges of pyracantha should divide the fields in which my Alderneys and Durhams grazed. Where no cattle ran, and separating the kept grounds from the fields, I would have ornamental hedges of flowering shrubs, of California Privet, of Japan Quince, of Erect Yew, of Irish Juniper, of 'Conical Spruce, and of the Hemlock, with its old and young growth, like mother and child in its beauty.
A rose garden should be there, and be surrounded with hedges of Gol. den yew and Golden Retinospora. Near the house, which should not have a mansard roof, should be all sorts of showy bedding plants. The azalea amaena should be planted in mass, while the rhododendrons and hard y azalea should be freely used. Around all unsightly buildings should be screens of arbor vitæ, or Norway spruce, trimmed into a wall.
There should be a walk of European Beech, planted in double rows so closely that they would meet at the sides and top, and be trimmed into a compact wall and roof of foliage with windows cut in the side. If an &casional Purple Beech should be introduced there would be a picturesque variegation. A single row of weeping Beech should cover a walk with its overhanging branches and close exterior. I know that you would come miles to see it.
My home should be for the winter, as well as summer, and there should be a promenade from the house a hundred feet long, covered with glass, without fire, into which should be gathered Portugal laurels, English hol. lies, and all the broad leaved evergreens which make southern England one of the fairest pictures.
Or, if something more beautiful should be desired, a little heat could be provided, and it could be filled with oranges, oleanders, cape jessamines, lagerstraemia, magnoliafusca, camellias, and the many other plants which flourish in a low temperature. But I will not intrude upon you more of my imaginations.
There is no limit to nature, and there is no limit to man's taste, if he responds to his opportunities for culture.
The elements of beauty are all around him, but not in him. It cannot therefore be educated out of him, but must be inducted into him. Knowledge and culture must go together, and there must be a teacher. Where can an efficient teacher be found ? The answer lies in the success of the National Pomological Society. That society was the teacher of the people in every thing pertaining to fruits, until now the merits or faults of every variety are either well known or easily ascertainable.
Horticulture has a wider field than pomology, and a national horticultural society would be the teacher of a large population. I have already alluded to this, but I would reiterate the essential need of a national horticultural guide.
Under its teachings, the aggregated opinions of all experts would be gathered up, and sown through all the States, and in a few years we should see the result-in improved farm-homes, villa sites, town lots, and cemeteries—all homes of the people.
My time has now expired. I have led you, by a somewhat wandering path, through the fields and lanes, which I like to travel, and my words are more a friendly, discussive talk, than a discussion or an argument.
I would be glad if any wandering words of mine should find lodgment in good soil and bear fruit.
I would like, in conclusion, to leave with you the thought, that if any reverence is due the man who can place in stone, or upon canvas, the ideals of his brain—who, out of dead inatter, can make a lifelike form, so an equal reverence is due the true horticulturist, who, if he knows his privileges, can grasp the forces of nature, cbrystalize them into living forms of beauty, and, grouping them in all the shapes suggested by a fertile brain and taste, produce scenes more charming than Phidias ever carved or A pelles painted.
For all this, we need a teacher and a school. Let us find them at once, and a few years hence, when we meet again, let us all say that our alma mater is the American Horticultural Society, and that horticultural art is the highest art all the world over.
The regular order of business having been resumed, on motion, the calling of the roll of members and collection of dues were dispensed with.
Election of officers being next in order, the chair appointed the following committee of three, to make nominations, and report at a future meeting: Messrs. George H. Small, James Calder, and J. Hibberd Bartram.
Reports of officers being next in order, the Treasurer's statement was read and referred to Messrs. Thomas M. Harvey, Charles H. Miller, and P. C. Hiller, as a committee of audit : GEORGE B. THOMAS, Treasurer, in account with Pennsylvania Fruit
Growers' Society. 1877.
Dr. January 17, to cash on hand, .
$265 26 January 17 to February 17, to cash from annual dues, 49 00
January 18, by cash paid E. B. Engle, as per bill, .
making drawing of fruit, .
drawing of fruit, December 10, by cash paid Dr. E. J. Nolan, as per bill,
making drawing of fruit, . By cash paid stamps and envelopes, By cash balance,
2 40 237 93
Mr. ENGLE asked that the programme, or list of subjects be read.
President Hoopes regretted to state that three or four of the essayists and speakers, who were announced upon the programme, would not be present. Neither Mr. Fuller, of New Jersey, nor Mr. Saunders, of Washington, could possibly be with us. Mr. Edge, Secretary State Board of Agriculture, and Judge Stitzel, of Reading, had also been expected until within a few days. The latter, he was sorry to announce, had been detained hy death in his family. Hoped the meetings would be well attended, and that all interested in fruit culture would be present. We wish to make the State of Pennsylvania a model one in horticulture. To do this, we wish to hear the experience of those engaged in horticultural pursuits in every section of the State.
Mr. ENGLE moved a vote of thanks to Mr. Parsons, for his very entertaining essay; which passed unanimously.
Mr Parsuns, in returning thanks to the Society, was pleased to see the interest manifested in horticulture. Has advocated the forming of a National Horticultural Society, and hoped it would not be out of order to introduce the subject at this meeting. Would be glad to see the organization of such a society begin here. Officers might be appointed and notices sent to all local horticultural societies to assist in establishing a permanent society.
President HOOPES did not doubt the usefulness of such an organization, and would be pleased to see it accomplished, but did not consider it feasi. ble. Requested Mr. Meehan to give his views upon the subject.
Mr. MEEHAN did not exactly see the way clear for the formation of such a society. Was much interested in Mr. Parsons's idea of the decadence of horticultural taste in this country. Thought, however, there were other and deeper causes which no national society or other organization can remove. There is manifest in late years a greater disinclination toward country life. During the past ten or fifteen years facilities for pleasure travel have greatly increased. We can now almost as easily go to the Rocky Mountains as we then could make a trip to Pittsburgh, and our railroads are carrying pleasurs seekers to all parts of the United States. The increased facilities afforded all classes for visiting the mountains, the sea-shore, and the many rural summer resorts are some of the reasons why horticultural tastes have apparently declined, and which no society can counteract or remove. He did not think, however, in view of the extensive public parks and grounds that have been laid out in many of our cities, that horticultural taste had materially declined. In fact many of them show a greatly improved taste in this direction. Before organizing such a society, we should not shut our eyes to what is before it. While much valuable information could be disseminated, it would subject members to considerable expense to attend its meetings and meet its necessary expenses. The American Pomological Society, an old and kindred organization, national in its character and influence, finds its treasury generally empty, and its work and usefulnesss constantly cramped for want of funds. So with a national horticultural society. An organization may easily be effected, and a list of members enrolled, but the great difficulty would be in keeping it up.
Mr. PARRY, of New Jersey, did not feel like adding anytbing to what has already been said on the subject. The idea is a new one to him, and apprehended some difficulty in keeping up such an organization. Would be glad to assist, but could not promise much.
Mr. Parsons thought there would be no difficulty in getting members together, and awakening an interest in this movement. As to the expenses incurred, and the means to meet them, he did not know.
Could not agree in the opinion that horticultural taste had not declined. A chiomo is a good thing to an uneducated eye, but to a cultivated taste it cannot be compared to a painting. So, in true horticulture taste, there has been a marked decline. If we bad a national society, its opinion on horticultural questions would be a guide and a dictum for all. It would be a teacher, through which to educate in matters pertaining to horticulture. Local societies, such as Massachusetts or Pennsylvania now have, are most useful in their sphere, but they cannot have the general influence that a national society would have.
President HOOPES was somewhat discouraged by the experience of the American Pomological Society. Since its organization it bas been always embarrassed by debt. Even admitting that the new society, which it is proposed to organize, has features which would make it more popular, he doubted the feasibility of the project.
Mr. CHARLES H. Miller had seldom listened to an address with so much pleasure, as the one just delivered by Mr. Parsons. His views are those of an artist in horticultural taste. Would, however, differ with the idea advanced that evergreens and deciduous trees could not be planted together, with good taste. Thinks in landscape planting outlines would be monotonous, without a blending of the two. Taking nature as our guide, too, we must not discard deciduous from evergreen trees.
Mr. Parsons was, perhaps, a little lame on this point, and did not wish to make the remark general. He meant that evergreens should not be planted in among deciduous trees, so that the foliage of one would injure the other,
Mr. MEEHAN did not wish to discourage the idea, but to present some of the difficulties that must be met. The London Horticultural Society is within twelve hours' ride of forty millions of people, while here the great extent of country over which a comparatively few earnest horticulturists are scattered, would be the great hinderance to its success.
Mr. BALDERSTON, of Maryland. Most of the work of the American Pomological Society is done by one or two members from each State. The chief obstacle to its success, however, is not men, but financial aid. Thinks, however, that by a judicious sale of its reports, considerable revenue could be raised.
Mr. ENGLE hoped that before adjourning this session, the society would decide upon the time of final adjournment.
President HooPES thought that would depend upon the amount of business which would be brought before the meeting. Sessions very seldom continue over the second day, and thought we would be able to adjourn on to-morrow (Thursday) night. Called attention to the fine specimens of fruit on the tables of the Society, and hoped the committee on nomenclature would not fail to report upon them.
On motion, adjourned to half past eight o'clock, Thursday morning.
Business was resumed at nine o'clock.
REPORT OF THE GENERAL FRUIT COMMITTEE.
To the Pennsylvania Fruit Growers Society :
The chairman of the general Fruit Committee regrets to have to commence his report with an apology for the lack of valuable information in it. Some interesting sub-reports were received, for which our thanks are due; but the unexpected meagerness of the aid from this source has obliged the chairman to depend largely upon his own inefficient knowledge.
Perhaps, correspondents have been discouraged from reporting, as the meagerness of past season's fruit crop, as affording nothing very encouraging to say.
The apple crop of Pennsylvania, as far as we can learn, is below the average, even for an off year. Various reasons are given for this. The continued cold rains, during the blooming season, retarded the ripening of the