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a general favorite with large planters, who do not spend much time nursing their strawberries. They are reported to have been carried two bundred miles and exhibited, without showing marks of transportation ; have yielded at the rate of fifteen thousand quarts per acre, and it is estimated that they can be profitably grown at three cents per quart, allowing one cent for picking, one for expenses of growing and marketing, and leave one cent profit, equal to $150, net, per acre, and for each additional cent per quart at which the fruit sells add $150 more profit per acre. When these facts become generally known, it will scarcely be worth while to cultivate for market, many varieties that we now have, that require the expenditure of much time and labor to keep down grass and weeds, and will not yield one fourth as much fruit, or only about one hundred bushels per acre.
Raspberries, Ripening soon after strawberries, when there is but little other fruit in market, are eagerly sought after and command good prices.
Their extensive cultivation, as a field crop, is of but recent date.
The Native Black and Yellow Caps, and old Purple Cane, being the principal varieties that would stand our warm, dry summers, and cold, changeable winters, without protection. All efforts to acclimate the large, fine, imported varieties, such as Antwerp, Hornet, Fastolff, Giant, and others, proving unsuccessful. In 1840, a seedling raspberry plant was found growing wild in a wood, near Philadelphia, which for size, hardiness, productiveness, and other good qualities, surpassed any other red raspberry then known to fruit growers, and was christened the Philadel. phia. It soon became a general favorite and was largely planted, one grower having more than twenty acres, and some patches yielding two hundred bushels per acre, which created a lively interest in raspberry culture. In 1866, the Herstine, claimed to be a cross between the Philadelphia and Allen's Red Cane, was introduced to public notice. It is a large berry, bright red color, delicious quality, and very productive in some localities, but not sufficiently hardy to succeed well generally.
The Susqueco (Brandywine) is a great favorite among market men, being hardy and productive, large size, firm, dry flesh, and a beautiful bright red color, bears transportation well, and commands a high price in market; one ten acre lot yielding $4,338.
The Pearl is a bright red, medium size, handsome, firm berry, bush dwarfish, a slow grower, with thick, tough foliage; needs good, strong land, and high cultivation. Having been widely distributed many years since, it may re-appear again under another name.
The Thwack created quite a sensation in Missouri ; was claimed to be a hybrid between the Herstine and Brandywine, yet it so nearly resembles the Pearl, above described, as to show no marks of difference in growth of canes, foliage, or fruit.
Delaware is a large, handsome berry, bright red color, pointed like the Antwerp, and said to be a seedling from the Hornet.
Ganargua and New Rochelle, both originated in the State of New York, are very similar in their habits of growth, size, and general appearance of fruit, which is large, of a dark red color, canes strong growers, hardy, and propagates from the tips.
Norwood originated in Massachusetts, fruit of medium size, dark red color, very productive, hardy, propagates from tips, not from suckers.
Winani, a seedling raised in New Jersey, a strong, vigorous, upright grower, perfectly hardy, fruit large size, being two and one quarter inches in circumference, beautiful, clear, bright red, firm and productive.
Early Prolific, a seedling raised from the Philadelphia, as hardy and productive as its parent, larger, handsomer, and more delicious, and about one week earlier.
Reliance is another seedling raised from the Philadelphia, a bright red color, much larger, handsomer, firmer, and better than its parent, bears transportation well and sells readily in market, and is wonderfully productive, having yielded more than one hundred bushels per acre of fruit at one picking.
Pride of the Hudson, a new raspberry recently introduced by E. P. Roe, very large, measuring three inches around, bright red color, firm, excellent quality, and very productive ; plant a remarkably strong, vigorous grower, appears to be hardy in New York, never having received any winter protection whatever, propagates from suckers, which spread but moderately. Season of ripening commences about the first of July and continues through the month.
As the plants can be obtained next April, they should have a wide range for trial.
Henrietta, a seedling found growing in Connecticut in 1871, has proven perfectly hardy, never had protection of any kind, though the mercury has been twenty-four degrees below zero, without injuring the canes. Fruit very large, some of the berries measuring three and one quarter inches around, firm, of a bright red color, carries well, fine appearance, and delicious in quality. The canes are remarkably strong, growing six to eight feet, and heavily loaded with large, handsome fruit, nicely shaded by a vigorous growth of broad, tough foliage. It should have a thorough trial in all sections of our country.
Norwalk Seedling is a bright red color, fine flavor, very firm, and solid, parts easily from the stem, and does not crumble or break in picking. Is a superior variety both for market and canning purposes.
Cuthbert, remarkably handsome, the size of the Hudson River Antwerp, of a deep, rich crimson color, firm, good flavor, rather late in ripening, at its height from July 10 to 20, and continues a long time in fruit. Canes of a strong growth, entirely hardy, and yield a heavy crop of fruit.
The Grapevine Raspberry, so named on account of the appearance of the canes and large leaves, which resemble grape foliage, an ornamental bush for lawn decoration, but of no value for fruiting.
Yellow Raspberries. Arnold's orange. Strong vigorous canes, perfectly hardy, fruit of good size, moderately productive and of medium quality, bright color, propogates from suckers.
Florence is a cup variety, a fine yellow berry, deep rich orange color, good flavor, canes vigorous and hardy and exceedingly prolific.
Caroline said to be a cross between Brinckle's orange and Catawissa, propogates both from tips and suckers, makes very few suckers and does not root as readily from tips as the cap varieties. Fruit resembles Brinckle's orange in color, size, and quality, but firmer, perfectly hardy, and very productive, yielding two or three quarts to each stool. Hawkin's orange, a poor fruit of no value.
Black Raspberries. The Gregg is the largest and best raspberry yet offered for sale, perfectly hardy, strong, vigorous grower, and very productive.
Of fifty varieties of blackberries that have been tested here, Wilson's Early is deservedly most popular for market, being early, very large, productive, sweet, and delicious. The canes are long and slender, bending over to the ground and sometimes strike root from the tips, and are propagated both from root cuttings and tips. They are not subject to the orange rust, so very destructive on the Kittatinny and Dorchester, although double or rose blossoms, which are abortive, producing no fruit, are sometimes found on them, and the canes are liable to a gald or enlargement as though bored by insects, which checking the flow of sap, destroys the fruit above the wound.
Like the new Rochelle and Kittatinny, it was an accidental seedling found growing in Burlington county, New Jersey, about the year 1850, by John Wilson, whose name it bears and by him brought to the notice of fruit growers. The centennial prize medal was awarded to this variety.
Dorchester, Kittatinny, Missouri, Mammoth, and New Rochelle are still cultivated to more or less extent.
The Wilson, Junior, a seedling raised in 1872, and another raised 1874, from Wilson's early, seem to possess all the good qualities of their parent. Delicious, large, early, and very productive, showing no defect yet, in canes nor blossoms, and having been started from the seed at least twentyfive years later than the mother plant, may be relied on to continue longer in health and vigor.
The Snyder, Wallace, and Taylor, three new varieties iutroduced from the West, are giving great satisfaction wherever tried. They are perfectly hardy, and very productive; never known to be injured by cold, when other varieties were mainly destroyed.
The Wallace is a strong, stocky grower, with enormous dark green leaves, earlier than the Kittatinny, larger and superior in quality.
The Taylor produces large crops of splendid berries. Best quality, and wonderfully productive, sweet and delicious, ripening about the same time as Kittatinny, one and a half inches long, and seven eights of an inch in cross diameter, or two and five eights inches around. Canes are long and slender, bending over to the ground, and sometimes striking root from the tips, but more easily propogated from root cuttings.
Hoosac Thornless, like Dodger Thornless, and Newman's Thornless, has canes so smooth and free from thorns, that it is a pleasure to handle them; but a great disappointment, after cultivating them carefully for several years, to find no fruit worth picking.
A blackberry bush, that is deficient in thorns, has never been found to produce fruit as large and fine as others having thorns.
The largest and best fruit will bring the highest price in market, without reference to the kind of bushes on which it grew.
Blackberries, for several years past, have averaged about three dollars per bushel. The require but once planting in many years, producing annually as many bushels per acre as corn, with less labor, and should be more generally cultivated.
WILLIAM PARRY, Cinnaminson, New Jersey.
At the conclusion of his essay, Mr. ENGLE inquired further about the Crescent seedling strawberry. If such large crops can be grown without special care or cultivation, cannot still larger ones be grown by cultivation ?
Mr. Parry thinks it is like the cranberry, will do better without cultivation. The horse and cultivator seem to do more harm than good. Went to Connecticut himself to see this wonderful berry, and was not disappointed in his expectations. Saw a fine plot, on which, he was told, not a dollar had been expended for fertilizers and culture in four years. Never saw anything like it in productiveness. Has seen larger fruit, but none handsomer. It is very uniform in size, and of good quality. The soil on which they grew was similar to our Pennsylvania soil.
Mr. CALDEB. This question of soil is a very important one. Many varieties of strawberries, as well as other fruits, do well in some soils, and utterly fail in others.
Mr. MEEHAN referred to the Mexican ever-bearing strawberry as one that would succeed only in certain localities. Saw some years ago a field of ten acres, near Detroit, Michigan, and when within one half mile of the ground, it seemed scarlet with berries. Actually picked a milk pan full without going from the spot. Has also seen attempts to grow it elsewhere, but the fruit was no larger than a pea, and could scarcely find a milk pan full on an acre. There seemed something in the soil near Detroit to which it was specially adapted, and so with many other kinds that succeed in certain soils and localities. Has much faith in Mr. Parry's opinion, as he has practical experience, and more than the usual amount of acumen in the selection of varieties. He is himself one of our most extensive growers of small fruits, and has brought to notice many new and valuable varieties.
The Treasurer, Mr. G. B. THOMAS, stated that he would be on hand after adjournment to receive the names of such as wish to become members of the Society. The fee of annual membership is one dollar, which entitles the member to the annual reports of the Society free of charge. Would be pleased to see a large accession of new members.
Mr. Ellis advised all who contemplate joining the Society, to become life instead of annual members. The fee is ten dollars, and the reports and printed matter of the Society furnish a constant feast of information.
Mr. SPROUT hoped the resolution in reference to cattle running at large in the State, will be adopted at this and at every annual meeting, until we have such a law upon ur statute books. This is the chief cause of the destruction of our young forests. He moved the re-adoption of the resolution, and it was carried unanimously.
The following is the resolution, as adopted :
Resolved, Tbat it is the opinion of this Society, that our Legislature should pass a general law prohibiting the running at large of cattle, horzes, sheep, and swine.
Mr. Ellis indorsed the resolution ; but we must send a different class of men to our Legislature to have passed such a law as we need. Helped to send in a very lengthy petition some years ago, and it was rolled under the table. Before adjournment, wish to call attention to a new seedling grape grown by Mr. Thomas Evenden, of Williamsport. The fruit is of fine quality and makes a good wine, which is hoped Mr. E. would introduce before the Society adjourned finally.
After re-assembling, and before proceeding with the r 'gular programme of business, the President called attention to a claim against the Society of long standing, presented by Mr. Marot, of Philadelphia. After reading the statement of Mr. Marot, Mr. Meehan was called upon to state what he knew concerning it.
Mr. MEEIIAN could throw no further light upon the subject. It was incurred by the publication of some of the Society's reports, but the matter was placed in the hands of a publication committee, who made the necessary arrangements, and could probably explain.
Mr. ENGLE was not aware that a claim of this kind was pending against the Society. While our treasury is probably not able to meet it at present, it would be well to have it examined. He moved, therefore, that a committee of two be appointed to confer with Mr. Marot, and report at our next meeting. The motion was adopted, and George B. Thomas and Charles H. Miller were appointed said committee.
The following essay was next read :
By CHARLES H. MILLER, Landscape Gardener of Fairmount Park, and late Chief of Bureau of Horticulture of International Exposition.
Mr. PRESIDENT, LADIES, AND GENTLEMEN: I merely wish to say a few words to you, who are all, I trust, intimately connected with gardening, and interested in its advancement-on the means we should employ towarıls the promotion of our art and our intellectual improvement. We have associated ourselves exclusively for a benevolent purpose, for mutual benefit, and for the good of our fellow men. Our aim is to increase the technical knowledge of gardening, and to disseminate correct rules of practice among those who make horticulture a pleasant recreation, and in pursuing this design we ask aid and cooperation from all who are devoted to the cultivation of the good and beautiful in nature.
Of late years, the term “horticulture” has become more fashionable than than that of "gardening," and many who eschewed the old appellation have felt honored by the new name; but the words mean the same thing. Farming, also, has become fashionable under the term agriculture, and farmers are now cılled “ agriculturists." As horticulture progressed, the art became divided into several branches, and was aided by the researches of scientific men, landscape gardening, esculent gardening, and flower gardening, including the study of rural taste and the adornment of public and private grounds.
Horticulture has done much to inculcate the principles of taste, and teach the pleasures of rural life, and it is not too much to assert that rural taste itself is a necessary adjunct to civilization, the advantages of which