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ceedingly rich flavor,) and Hermione. All these are superior to the old Chinese cling, and not so much predisposed to decay as the parent variety.
Of the many early varieties introduced by Mr. Rivers, few are of any value, and all are superseded by Mountain Rose with which they nearly all ripen. Of this list, I would mention Early Albert, Early Alfred, Magdala, De Hogg, Early Silver. Among the varieties ripening later, the Princess of Wales is of surpassing excellence, but much affected by mildew, and often worthless from this cause.
The type known as Indian peaches, of which the Columbia is a well known representative, contains a large number of exc llent sub-varieties both free and cling-stones. Of this strain we have varieties ripening from July 10 until October. I will mention the Muscogee as am ng the free-stone varieties likely to be of value for the Middle States. Fruit very large, dingy brown red, with deep stripes, and very downy. Flesk white, veined red, juicy, buttery, and very rich; pit very small. This variety carries exceedingly well to long distances. Maturity here, end of July to August 15.
The Indian type of peaches seems to be confined to the uplands of the middle portion of Georgia, South Carolina, and Alabama, where it attains great perfection, and it is doubtful whether satisfactory results would ensue from their cultivation in the northern States. Still they are worthy of a trial. Of this type there are many excellent cling-stones whose peculiar vinous flavor seems to be confined to this strain. The newest fine variety of this class is the Raisin peach, lately brought to notice in Coweta county, Georgia. Another type furnishes us with many valuable varieties; this is the Heath strain, rich in juicy and vinous cling-stones. Of these I would mention,
SHELBY CLING.-Originated in Alabama. Size, large; slightly oblong. Skin white, with a bright rich carmine cheek of most attractive appearance. Flesh, white, juicy, vinous—best; maturity, end of July.
ANNIE WYLIE.-Introduced by Doctor A. P. Wylie, of Chester, South Carolina, and one of the last legacies to horticulture from that eminent and scientific worker, whose recent decease will be a great loss to southern pomology. Many of you have doubtless seen specimens of the variety at the exhibition of the American Pomological Society, at Baltimore, in September, 1877, where its fine size and appearance created much attention from peach growers. Size large to very large; creamy white, with red cheek. Flesh white, fine grained, melting vinous; quality, best; maturity in South Carolina, beginning of September.
PICQUET'S LATE.—This variety has been grown for nearly twenty years, and is highly esteemed in sections of Illinois and California. Ripening here with Smock, its merits are'so far superior to that variety as to have caused the Smock to be discarded. Size very large, skin yellow, with red cheek; flesh deep yellow, buttery and very rich. It has also the great merit of blooming later than most of our leading varieties, thus seldom missing a crop. It is, with Hale's early, the only variety which has never failed to produce fruit wben all other varities failed from spring frosts.
This peach would likely be one of the latest which could be ripened well in Delaware or Pennsylvania. But should later varieties prove successful, I would name the following, which are all improved seedlings of Baldwin's late, and ripen here end of September to 15th of October :
ZELIA.-Large, skin white with red cheek. Flesh, white, juicy, vinous, and fine flavor; free-stone; end of September; quality, very good.
CORA AND OLGA.—Almost similar to above, but a few days later. And still later we have
DARBY CLING.-A pure white fleshed peach, ripening from October 15 to middle of November.
Goode's OCTOBER.-A red-fleshed cling of the Indian type, of fine quality, and ripening end of October to 10th of November.
In the beginning of these remarks, I referred to my residence in what is considered as the best peach growing belt of the Southern States. We have practically demonstrated our capacity to produce mature peaches from end of May to middle and end of November, or during a period of nearly six months of the year. This is one of the claims advanced, for the popular opinion generally conceded to this section. The others are in bringing the fruit to a degree of perfection seldom equaled in more northern latitule, or those bordering on the sub-tropical zone. How far, however, these claims may be substantiated in the estimation of our friends in Pennsylvania, must be determined by themselves, and I suggest a visit to middle Georgia from all of you during our peach season proper, which embraces the months of June, July, and part of August, where the greatest abundance of varieties mature, and I can assure you all that we shall welcome you most heartily.
P. J. BERCKMANS. AUGUSTA, G A., January 5, 1878.
Mr. Ellis thinks “ Hoopes " a superior apple for canning. Can be kept until May, without difficulty.
The President inquired if any one knew the origin of this apple.
Mr. Ellis understood it came originally from Bucks county. Thought, however, that Downing gives it to Chester connty. Mr. ENGLE has known this apple many years.
Would not know now where trees can be had. Got some fruit in the Cumberland Valley a few years since.
Mr. Harvey saw some trees on the property of Lukens Peirce, some years ago.
Mr. EVENDEN. Have been in this country twenty-three years, and have sold many trees of this variety. It bears every alternate year, and is one of the best winter apples in this section, keeping until May.
Mr. Sprout has trees in bearing. One of the best varieties for spring canning.
Mr. ELLIS. It is much better buried than kept in the cellar.
Mr. MEEHAN was surprised to see the peach so much neglected in Pennsylvania. In New Jersey, where the soil is lighter, roots run deeper, and cultivation is doubtless beneficial, while in the heavier soils of this State it is safe to let the surface soil alone. Trees have borne abundantly for three years under his system of culture. In the flats adjoining the Susquehanna, they will doubltless do well by cultivation.
Mr. ENGLE is satisfied that peach culture can be made profitable in this State. We might as well export peaches as to bring them here from Delaware. Have grown fine peaches on the hills along the Susquehanna river. Saw enormous crops in the Cumberland Valley grown on poor soil. Had hoped, ere this, to see peach culture more of an enterprise in this State. Our Pennsylvania peaches always out-sell all others in the markets, but our great disadvantage is the cost of transportation. As to experience with the new early peaches, has only fruited Alexander in comparison with his own seedlings. Thinks Wilder will fill the gap between Hales and Alexander. Downing and Saunders have thus far proved earlier than Alexander. It seems Hales succeeds better south than here. As Mr. Berckmans suggests, think these early peaches all over the country are descendants of Hale's early. Has planted an orchard containing trees of about all the early sorts, and will be able to report definitely in a year or two.
Mr. Thomas. Notwithstanding Hale's rots badly elsewhere, in Michigan it is one of the most reliable varieties.
The President hoped Mr. Evenden would give some information concerning the Lycoming grape.
Mr. EVENDEN has had it about seventeen years. In appearance it is like Red Hamburg. Have three acres planted in grapes, one half an acre of which are Lycoming.
Mr. ENGLE inquired whether it has been fruited outside of his grounds.
Mr. EVENDEN.–Some have been fruited in New Jersey, and also in Philadelphia, and did well.
Mr. Chase inquired its season of ripening.
Mr. EVENDEN.- About the time of Concord. , It is about the size of Concord, or a little larger. Salem also does well here, but must protect in winter.
Mr. ENGLE suggested that before adjournment we select a place for the holding of our next annual meeting. The question is, where can we meet to do most good and get most members ? Has always been in favor of coming westward to hold meetings; but, if we cannot get accessions to our ranks, the feeling is in favor of staying nearer home.
Mr. Cooper proposed Lancaster.
Mr. Thomas named Reading. It seems we came too far west this time. Have gotten, thus far, but one new member.
Mr. ENGLE suggested Harrisburg.
Mr. SPROUT. Ain glad to have the Society meet here, but much disappointed in the local attendance.
A vote being taken, Reading was selected as the place of our next annual meeting.
Mr. Ellis felt very anxious to have the Society meet here, and had strongly urged them to come, but felt mortified and ashamed to see so few in attendance. Have hardly been in the county during the past month, and fear our citizens have not been posted concerning the immense amount of talent here, and the pleasure to be derived by attending these meetings.
Mr. FORESMAN. Lives here, and is pretty well known, but did not know the business of the meeting, nor any of its members. Met Mr. Calder, who told him about it, and invited hiin to attend. It is hardly fair, therefore, to cast any reproach upon the citizens. If ladies were expected to be present, a committee should have been appointed to explain the nature of the meeting, an I invite them to its sessions. Many, doubtless, thought it was a private meeting. This is not a public place, but a private hall, and himself did not know its sessins were free to all. If this Society had held its meetings in the court-house, people would love felt free to come. He hoped the Society would not go away from here, shaking the dust from their feet.
Mr. SPROUT did not intend t) censure the citizens here for not attending our meetings. Could not admit, however, that it had not been sufficiently advertised. Has talked it all summer.
Mr. Ellis censured, not the citizens, but himself, for making such an effort to get the Society here.
Mr. Meehan thought it natural that some should be dissappointed with the small attendance here, but felt that it could not be attributed to any lack of interest. It was evidently owing to a misunderstanding, and not to any neglect on the part of any one.
Mr. MATTHEWSON. Mr. Sprout did best he could. Met with much difficulty in securing a suitable room, Has seen a number of citizens, and the general impression is that the sessions are private. If the court-house could have been procured, there would have been a good attendance.
Mr. Ellis made personal application to the commissioners for the use of the court-house, and was refused. The teachers' institute was also refused admittance, and passed a vote of censure.
Mr. FORESMAN was satisfied the committee did best they could in the way of securing a room. We have no public hall here, except the court-house, and this is the best room that could be gotten in the city. It is a splendid room, but never knew of a public meeting being held here. The only way to get ladies and gentlemen here, would be to appoint a committee to see the ladies, and extend a special invitation. Our citizens show deep interest in fruit and floriculture, and we usually have as large and fine horticultural exhibitions in this county as any in the State.
Mr. COOPER sees no reason to censure anyone. We have a very pleasant room for our meeting, and the proceedings interesting and instructive.
The PRESIDENT thought no censure due anyone. The Society has long felt a desire to meet in this section of the State, and was happy to embrace this opportunity to do so.
Adjourned to half past seven o'clock.
EVENING SESSION. The closing session of this meeting was made more than usually interesting and entertaining, by some remarks by Thomas MEEHAN, editor of the Gardeners' Monthly, on the subject of
HORTICULTURE IN ENGLAND. We regret, exceedingly, our inability to report his remarks in full. He stated, among other things, that, to him, the whole country of England seemed to be a garden, It seems a nation of gardeners, and every humble house or cottage seems to have its garden. Native trees there are smaller, or rather shorter, than our own forest trees. Their trunks are stouter, and the branches seem to spread more. Have frequently noticed stems fifteen to eighteen feet in circumference, and measured a few that were twenty feet.
It is remarkable what pride and interest the nobility take in their parks and gardens. Even the Queen may be frequently seen among the beautiful flowers and shrubbery of her private residence, at Osborne House, on the Isle of Wight. Many of the trees were growing on this estate when purchased by the Queen, but the larger proportion were planted by Prince Albert, or since it came into his possession. Had the privilege of visiting these grounds, and they were of special interest to me, as showing how rapidly trees could be made grow into beauty. Saw Cedar of Lebanon, which is considered a slow grower, over forty feet high. Many of these trees have been planted at different periods, by distinguished visitors, as memorials of their visit to Osborne. All the specimens thus planted are neatly marked with a painted label, at the foot of each tree, giving the name of the planter, the date and the event it is designed to commemorate.
Some of these have failed, but a majority are doing well, and are doubtless the source of much pleasure. These facts tend to show how gardening is with the English people—an almost perpetual occupation and pleasure. Have seen the Duke of Wellington, busy with saw and chisel, pruning and grafting, like a common laborer. There are horticultural, or, rather, cottage associations, which offer small prizes for the best gardens, and it is surprising to see the success which some achieve, with the limited opportunities at their command. One place, in particular, was visited, where a family, consisting of husband, wife, and six children, were able, from a plot thirty by one hundred feet, to keep themselves in vegetables and fruit. Every point of space is utilized, and three or four crops are made to follow each other, in succession.
Larger places afford more scope for display and variety, and I found many that were particularly interesting to me. We sometimes think, that in the United States, we have a poor climate, and that with a more favorable climate, our success would be easy. On the contrary, we have many advantages, especially in fruit culture. Peaches are grown in England only with great difficulty. Their trees are trained, fan-like, against southern walls, or grow entirely under glass. Apricots and grapes need the same careful culture, and also strawberries, of which a few only are raised, by covering with nets, to secure from birds and other destructive agencies. Their strawberries are usually larger and firmer than with us, but in flavor they are not superior to our best spcimens.
Grapes are generally grown under glass, and need more skill and care than here, owing to the want of sunlight. In the culture of the apple and pear, the English do not succeed as well
The pear is usually trained on walls, and the fruit similar to that grown in California, but not quite so good in quality.
The public gardens of England are grand, and well worthy a visit. Even the botanic gardens show rare beauty of arrangement, and great variety of color and design. Grounds are thus made to appear much larger than they really are, and plots of eight or ten acres seem to contain thirty or forty. Much labor is spent on these gardens, and it is interesting to see how they are planted and arranged, and how soon they become a thing ot beauty. Slips are set in boxes early in the spring, and when rooted are set out and kept from wilting and in a very few days they are a mass of foliage and bloom.
Kew gardens are particularly interesting, and it is wonderful how popular they are with the people. Comprising an area of four hundred acres, they abound in rare as well as common plants. Besides specimens of plants from all parts of the world, there is here a library of three hundred volumes, a laboratory, in wbich lectures on plant life are given, and every convenience necessary for young men to experiment in botanical problems. The average daily attendance of visitors the past year was five thousand, and as many as twenty-five thousand have been present on a single Sunday afternoon.
Although beautiful and interesting to visitors, England differs in many respects from the United States. They have there much longer twilight, and in summer, scarcely any night at all. The long evenings are great aids to those who desire to work in their gardens.
Society there is also different from here. Generally speaking, here ladies are worked to death. They must have the best of everything to keep up appearances. Hiere fine houses and costly furniture are marks of gentility. There a well kept lawn or garden is a measure of gentility, and shabby gardens are seldom seen. Within their houses they often deprive them