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PREFACE.

This study was submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Columbia University. The subject was suggested by Prof. W. P. Trent, who called the author's attention to the lack of interest manifested in American colonial literature.

For many reasons, Pennsylvania is especially important to the student of our early literature. It was in this colony that the first monthly magazine in America was published, the first religious magazine, the first German newspaper, the first daily newspaper (The Advertiser of Philadelphia, 1784), besides the first reprints of a German and of an English Bible, of Shakespeare, Milton, Burns, Richardson, Smollett and others. The Quakers produced more men fairly conspicuous in art and letters than in philanthropy, which seemed their special province.

I am very glad to acknowledge my many debts of gratitude. To the authorities of the Columbia University Library, of the New York and Pennsylvania Historical So cieties, of the Astor and Lenox Libraries of New York, and of the Library Company of Philadelphia, I am greatly indebted for the many courtesies they have shown me.

I am under heavy obligations to the faculty of the English Department at Columbia University; to Professor G. R. Carpenter, Professor Neilson and Professor Brander Matthews for valuable assistance in suggestions and criticisms; but to Professor Trent, who directed the preparation of the study, I can not too gratefully acknowledge my indebtedness. His generous interest and sympathetic advice have been indispensable. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY,

June 13, 1905.

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CHAPTER I

PERIOD OF COLONIZATION

Penn, Early Life-Efforts at Colonization in New Jersey-Settlement

of Pennsylvania -Character of the People-Basis of Government -Foundation of Schools-Early Schoolmasters-Work of Press - Bradford-Verse Descriptions of the Province-Frame, Holme - Church-Schism-Keith, Leeds, Pusey-Writings of Dickenson, Thomas, Pastorius and Kelpius-Summary.

WILLIAM PENN, destined to become the founder of a colony and the prudent leader of a people, was born in London in 1644. While a student at Oxford, he was stirred by the preaching of Fox, and, because of his adherence to the Quaker, he was dismissed from the University. The handsome, polished youth was sent to France to study, to travel, and to mingle in fashionable society, not for the scholarship or culture he might receive, but that'he might be freed from such intense religion. In 1665, the London plague revived. his spiritual fervor; and in 1667, after hearing Thomas Coe preach in Cork, he openly espoused Quakerism. In the same year, with Fox; Barclay, and Keith, he went through Holland, Switzerland, and Germany on a proselytizing tour. Penn spoke German, and thus he was able to establish intimate relations with many who were suffering from the religious and civil persecutions of the time, the

1 George Fox (1624-1690), the founder of the Society of Friends, left relations and “ broke off all familiarity or fellowship with old or young at the command of God in 1643." In 1647 he began the work of an itinerant preacher, the positive element in his teaching being that men ought to give earnest heed to the inner light. Notwithstanding many imprisonments, he secured a large following in England. Macaulay thought him a vulgar charlatan whom we have for placing morally or intellectually above Ludowick Muggleton or Joanna Southcote."

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