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lawyer in one and the same mold as it would be to impose identical educational and licensing requirements upon physicians, dentists, health officers, pharmacists, nurses, and veterinary surgeons.

As a matter of fact, all analogies limp. The analogy of health service is defective in so far as it suggests that graduates of parttime law schools are likely to remain stratified on a plane of lower financial or political rewards. Similarly, the existence in France and England of two or more virtually exclusive professional groups of practicing lawyers is evidence merely that division of the legal profession is possible; it is not evidence that the dividing lines in this country will ever run as they do there. The problem of the American lawyer is unlike that of lawyers elsewhere or of other professions at home. Illustrations drawn from other fields are stimulating, but in the past there has perhaps been too much superficial reliance upon outside models and too little probing of legal fictions and conventional assumptions. No one—least of all the present writer—can forecast with any confidence how American lawyers will be educated and organized in the years to come. But it is at least fairly clear that the form and effectiveness of the professional organization will be vitally influenced by the existence of differing types of educational preparation and that part-time law schools will continue to abound and to turn out large numbers of lawyers who differ markedly from the product of orthodox full-time schools. This conclusion can be rationally derived from our fundamental political principles, and such experience as we have tends to confirm the validity of the reasoning.

CHAPTER VII

ART EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES

By Royal Bailey Pabnum

Principal of the Massachusetts School of Art and State Director of Art Education

Contents.—Art instruction in the elementary schools—In the high schools—Tests in art education—The Federated Council on Art Education—The Carnegie Corporation.

The time between the publication of the advance sheets on art education for the biennial survey of 1920-1922 and the present document has seen greatly increased activity in this field of education. More clearly defined aims and objectives have become apparent in the elementary and high schools, and urgent demands for training in taste and the essentials of good color and design have arisen in unexpected directions. Industry, commerce, and the public generally have awakened to a partial realization at least of the social, economic, and cultural value of aesthetic training.

In fact the awakening has been so effective and widespread that to report adequately and completely the past two years' progress in art education would require a good-sized volume. Industrial plants, public utilities, retail establishments, business groups, organizations such as the Y. W. C. A., Y. M. C. A., parent-teacher associations, women's clubs, and "out-of-school" clubs throughout the country, have sought enlightenment on the subject of art as an everyday expression.

Since the problem of training in art understanding is more or less similar for all, no matter what the group may be, this bulletin will confine itself chiefly to the public-school situation, touching briefly upon other developments.

ART INSTRUCTION IN THE ELEMENTARY GRADES

Probably the one outstanding mark of progress in art teaching in the elementary grades is the serious effort in many cities to study the problem from a scientific standpoint. This, no doubt, was brought about because of the success obtained in the general education field through surveys and concentrated graduate study in colleges and universities. If measurement tests, standards, and definite objectives of general value to the child were found possible in other subjects, it was logical to conclude that similar results could be obtained in drawing and art education.

Proceeding upon this basis a number of school departments have taken the matter under advisement and have issued tentative courses in art, preliminary to more thorough study. In each case the first step would be to appoint a committee composed of (a) persons qualified in art outside of the department; (b) teachers, including principals and art director, in the department; (c) art teachers and the director or head supervisor; or (d) members from all these groups. In most cases these committees would make immediate studies of the outlines in current use in cities of similar size or larger and also analyze their local study courses. This would be followed by careful revisions of the local course, based upon the most advanced thought on methods, objectives, standards of attainment, general subject matter, etc., as well as other art outlines. Then would follow a year of trial, with many carefully devised experiments, conference discussions, and tabulated results.

Denver, Los Angeles, Boston, Toledo, Minneapolis, Baltimore, and Seattle are typical examples of cities studying the whole question from this scientific angle.

The obvious effects upon the art situation as a whole have been somewhat as follows: (a) A cooperative effort on the part of all teachers really to investigate the problem; (b) the elimination of personal opinion on the part of both grade teacher and supervisor; (c) more intelligent support of the art program; (d) keener interest in results from a purely educational point of view; (e) thoroughly professional attitudes on the part of the art teachers and supervisors in close harmony with the general educational program; (f) greater confidence from all directions in the'subject of art. Under these conditions art naturally falls into place with other subjects and becomes as much a part of the school curriculum as English. It is no longer a special subject. The superintendent and the grade-school principals no longer hold aloof, leaving the art supervisor to go his own sweet way. He must now function as part of the whole machine.

Being in a more or less try-out stage, the new phase of art education is unsettled, but some of the general objectives would include, (a) drawing primarily for self-expression, as a means rather than an end; (b) closer relationship to community needs; (c) training in appreciation, taste, understanding of art; (d) development of orderly habits and artistic skill; (e) education for the profitable enjoyment of leisure; (/) art as expressed in the industrial and commercial development of the race; ((/) self-expression in the life needs of the child through the ';project method"; (/<) discovery and encouragement of special abilities.

These objectives may appear to be more or less familiar to many, and yet during the past two years a much clearer understanding of them has been increasingly apparent. Less controversy and more general accord have followed. Drawing, for example, has really begun to appear as a language. In spite of emphatic statements to the contrary, it has been the involuntary custom to look upon children's pictorial expressions from the viewpoint of the professional artist. Criticisms of the purity of line and form and of the beauty of color have characterized the attitude of observers at exhibitions and in the classroom. But this point of view has been changing, and emphasis has been placed more and more upon drawing as a story-telling language, vivid with observed, memorized, and imaginative possibilities. Public school drawing has unquestionably received a great stimulus in this direction from the work with children carried on in the educational departments of art museums,1 by private individuals,2 and foreign exhibitions.3 The result has been greater confidence on the part of the average child in his ability to express his thoughts quickly and completely in an exchange of ideas.

Closer relationship to community needs has been increasingly evident also. Various annual "campaigns" have served to form more or less regular outlets in this direction. English Week, Thrift Week, Safety First, Health Crusades, Accident Prevention, Humane Week, and many other worthy causes have become in many communities a regular thing. Local efforts for the benefit of that particular community have also made their contribution.

The popular and spectacular display of the community poster has led some supervisors to curtail their efforts in this field, the tendency being to devote too much time, energy, and material to it. The unwholesome effect of money prizes has also caused a reaction to set in, particularly against the almost innumerable competitions promoted outside the community itself. Consequently, the tendency has been to localize the effort as in the case of Indianapolis and Syracuse, and also to seek other ways of art expression in support of community needs.

Training in appreciation has aided in correcting this danger of overemphasizing the poster and at the same time in relating the art work to the community. For many years training in appreciation of art meant picture study. With the ever-broadening conception of art education as a general training for the consumer, the every

1 The Metropolitan Museum, Toledo, Worcester, Cleveland, Chicago, Boston, Indianapolis, and others.

• See publication on training in observaUon, by Woodbury and Perkins, Chas. Scribner & Sons.

s Notably the Vienna exhibit of Prof. Franz Cizek.

day citizen, came a realization that in appreciation must be involved also a more general understanding of art. To know some of the masterpieces of painting was not enough. Art is universal; it is found in the many things surrounding the everyday lives of children. The community in this respect offered a rich field for investigation, and wide-awake supervisors have taken advantage of the opportunity.

The training of the girls of the Salem Normal School under Charles F. Whitney is an illustration in point. Mr. Whitney takes them out into the streets of the historic old town, and the girls discover for themselves and through his trained eyes and mind the art treasures of Salem. Beautiful fences, doorways, knockers, gates, windows, spires, and many other expressions of true craftmanship are observed, graphically recorded, analyzed in terms of historic and modern art periods, and discussed from the standpoint of utility and beauty. The barest community will offer something to observant eyes. Art thus centers vitally on the community life.

True appreciation naturally involves a consideration of art in its manifold applications. To meet this situation, Bostoni has for some time, and Philadelphia5 recently, provided beautiful illustrations of fine art productions housed in the city's museum for the individual child to purchase and study. Those in Boston are black and white halftones; Philadelphia has reproduced very delightful color prints, and they include painting, sculpture, ceramics, textiles, metalry, etc. The result of a study of these prints is twofold, (a) an increased appreciation of art in many mediums and (b) an easily satisfied desire to visit the Museum of Art.

To carry on in a comprehensive way this conception of art appreciation, Los Angeles offers a very practical suggestion. Miss May Gearhart writes:

A very important feature of the work in our art department this year is the problem of establishing standards of taste by bringing the pupils into contact with actual things embodying principles of art. The modern educational approach with its emphasis on self-expression necessarily demands a quickened effort on the part of teachers in providing experiences that will create an awareness of art values. To meet this need the following procedure was adopted in the art department by supervisors and assistant supervisors.

Bach supervisor drives an automobile when visiting schools—the board of education pays the mileage. Equipment for art appreciation discussions is easily carried from school to school in this way.

These materials are used to illustrate talks on color, form, and arrangement. Pupil participation and demonstration insure interest. By slight changes innumerable compositions can be made. We use this material in presenting

* C. Edward Newell, art director, recently of Springfield, Mass.
1 Theodore M. Dillaway, art director, formerly of Boston, Mast).

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