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cation through beauty in production; (b) the children gain a new point of view in their school training, a new sense of values, and understanding of the relationship between principles on the one hand and practice on the other; (c) the community, through the parents, is awakened to the immediate value of asthetic training, as evidenced by the artistic product from the school studio or shop and the more intelligent attitude of the boy or girl in his purchasing expeditions. The briefest contact with a community maintaining an efficiently organized junior high school art department shows at once this wholsesome result, according to many reports. It is no less true where well developed senior high school art courses are found.
This idea of applied art is, of course, no new thing. The arts and crafts have existed for some time, but more recently there has been greater emphasis placed upon concrete material expression than ever before. Volume XXI, No. 1, of “ The Sierra Educational News" was issued as the “ Arts and Crafts Number," containing a national symposium on the question; the project method has forced the application of art principles not only to single forms but even to all the details of dramatic and musical performances carried out by groups of children; and special courses based upon the home, the costume, etc., make constant demand for practical application.
In the foreword of the new Boston Syllabus in Art for High Schools,1° it is stated that:
The new note in education is motivation. Conferences with the superintendent, head masters, and with heads of departments have made us realize that, if art is to have its proper place in the programs of our secondary schools, it, too, must be more generally motivated. It is with this thought that the committee has prepared its syllabus. It has enlarged upon fundamentals and motivated courses and emphasized the cultivation of taste, which is the right of every educated person.
The forward movement of art in high-school education has led to a number of perplexing problems, now for the first time, perhaps, forced into the open. Following the general theme of motivation, the Boston outline continues in its introduction as follows:
The art work of each high school should be differentiated to meet the needs of the students in the different courses; in other words, it should be motivated. It should touch the lives of the students so intimately and the different vocational and academic courses so positively that its need will be obvious.
To this end, the art work in the Boston high schools is planned around three centers—the individual, the home, and the vocation, or the future training of the student. That the work of the art department may be purposeful it is essential that students of like courses be grouped in their art work as well as in the major subjects of their choice. Until drawing is required in at least two years in the general high school and is an elective in the third and fourth years, it is impossible to plan courses which can be followed as outlined.
Herein lie two of the problems needing to be solved; first, the adequate differentiation of subject matter, and, second, the proper grouping of students. Professor Whitford offers in his suggested “Outline for General Arts Courses ” 11 seven different topics, as follows: (1) Study of buildings (civic and general architecture, sculpture); (2).study of permanent equipment (real estate); (3) study of home furnishings (personal property); (4) study of printing and advertising (commercial art); (5) study of personal apparel; (6) study of decorations for special occasions (art for drama); (7) study of vehicles and transportation. Under each of these topics are listed a great many objects, and he goes on to say:
The citizen of to-day has a definite, even if vaguely defined, responsibility for the approval or disapproval of practically all of the objects mentioned in the foregoing list. Upon the citizen of to-morrow will rest the setting of standards for new objects and works, and for replacements.
Involved in the same problem of differentiation is the problem of administration. For years art classes have been the last to be organized in the schedule; and then, except in the very large schools, students representing all years have been herded together. This has naturally made it very difficult for the art teacher to organize her work and practically impossible to give well-ordered class instruction. Until classes can be organized by years, or by the degree of proficiency in the subject, the proper development of differentiated courses will be a difficult one. At present the attempt is too often made to offer different courses for individual students, partly to “hold them,” partly to foster talent.
Another high-school problem confronting the art department of the high school is the very important one of credits. For years the art classes have been the last scheduled and have been given least consideration from every angle. The more recent attempts to classify and rightly place the subject in relation to the school's curriculum in a number of places has immediately raised the question of its value in terms of points or credit. The situation is handicapped, for secondary schools training primarily for the advanced professional colleges, as is usually the case, are extremely loath to give credit for subjects not recognized for entrance into the advanced institutions. Here is a real difficulty in the minds of most principals.
Until the colleges and universities, therefore, recognize highschool art and drawing courses for credit on entrance examinations or on certificate, the tendency will be to retard credit recognition in the secondary school itself. Some schools overcome the problem
11 Sch, Rev., Vol. XXXII, Nos. 5 and 6, May and June, 1924.
by dodging it. They offer two courses, one for college, the other for students not planning to continue their education. Thus, the good student with excellent brain capacity, who should have a broad general and cultural training preceding the higher education, finds it impossible to devote any time to the question of art.
The importance of the question led to two questionnaires being formulated and tabulated by Minna McLeod Beck, M. A., director of art at Harrisburg, Pa.12 These questionnaires dealt with.“ Some Difficulties Encountered by Art Education," and were sent to 61 cities.
The questions pertaining to secondary schools dealt with the value of art, recognition of art in relation to other subjects and credits. In the summary printed and distributed by the American Crayon Co. the following statement is made:
It is without doubt agreed by all working in the high-school art field, with the exception of a very few favorably situated, that art education is laboring under difficulties and that these difficulties, in the main, have to do with lack of recognition and credit given in the high schools, and lack of acceptance of art credits by colleges. It is, however, admitted that in some instances the art courses offered by high schools (colleges also) are not worth credit or recognition; therefore the need for standardization of art courses.
Fifty-three colleges and universities responded to the questionnaire.
These questions related to the sizes and conditions of art departments, to propaganda, and credits. The conclusions formulated after studying the returns are as follows:
It would seem that the matter of college entrance requirements is holding back art advancement both in the colleges and high schools. There is a reaction one upon another here. It would seem, also, that the matter of credits allowed is another disturbing factor. What can we do about this? Is it a matter that depends, for its adjustment, upon the evaluation of our subject matter and its recognition by college authorities? At which end shall we begin?
Concerning the issue relative to standardization of art courses—dare we face this issue? Some one has already said, in replying to the questionnaire, “ You have started something." And yet, is it not possible to get together on important questions? Is it not possible for art educators to agree among themselves upon something like a standard course of art study?
Until we do form some sort of coalition, presenting a united front; until we can offer a consecutively worked out and consistent course of study-one offering undoubted content value, one that, from the standpoint of modern pedagogy, may be approved by our greatest living educational authorities can we, indeed, expect much consideration, or even a modicum of what, in our injured souls, we call “fair play"?
And speaking of educational experts—we need the help of these educatorswe can not work out our salvation alone. They have a contribution to make to our work, like that they have made to other subjects. If once they be
12 Sent out through the cooperation of the American Crayon Co., 1924.
come convinced that art education, rightly conceived and rightly taught, holds amazing possibilities-and, should they investigate these same possibilities, we may be sure they will champion our cause.
Any course in art appreciation requires a considerable amount of illustrative material. It also involves reading and research. This naturally brings about a demand for prepared work on the part of the student, and a textbook is inevitable. That this is true is evidenced by the extensive use of the "Apollo,” 13 and some places are adopting lists of accepted textbooks. New York State has such a list, and recently the following was issued in Baltimore:
The board of school commissioners of the city of Baltimore, Md., has recently adopted a list of five textbooks on art subjects to be used by pupils in the junior and senior high schools. The list includes the following: Brown's Applied Art; Degarmo and Winslow's Essentials of Design; Norton's Elementary Freehand Perspective; Varnum's Industrial Arts Design; Bement's Figure Construction; and Neuhaus's Art Appreciation. It is the policy of the Baltimore art department to recommend the adoption of suitable textbooks, in so far as suitable texts can be found, for each of the art subjects offered in the junior and senior high schools.
PROGRAMS AND THE HIGH-SCHOOL AN ART CENTER
While this question has been touched upon before, a single program is here presented to illustrate how one city is covering the art field. It is from Seattle, Wash.
A SYNOPSIS OF THE GENERAL ART COURSE IN SEATTLE, WASH., WITH SUGGESTIVE ART COURSES SELECTED FROM THE GENERAL COURSE AND FROM THE OTHER ELECTIVE ART SUBJECTS OFFERED
Art I-Art struc- Art appreciature.
tion I. Art II-Rep- | Art appreciaresentation.
tion II. Art III-Pen and
ink. Art IV-Color.... Art V-Beginning
Art structure. Lettering design. Art structure.. Art structure.
house plans). Leather and Pen and ink..--- Block printing Block printing bookbind
and dyeing. and dyeing. Color.-------- Color ---------- Beginning Color.
figure. Block print- Beginning Advanced Beginning poting and dye- ! figure.
tery. ing. Art metal..---| Advanced figure Color --------- Decorative comMention should also be made of the action of the State of Missouri in appointing a committee, headed by Jean Kimber, of Harris Teachers College, St. Louis, to prepare a new high school art course which will probably be off the press this year.
position (murals and landscape
gardening). Beginning Decorative Decorative Architectural pottery. composition composition
drawing (see (murals and (stage craft). In d. arts landscaping).
tive composition (murals and
landscaping). Art VII-Commercial illustration.
No city has taken a more forward step in the field of art education recently than New York. For some time there has been a growing need for more adequate facilities to carry on art work, if it is to be permitted to grow and expand with the city. The following is the gist of an article which recently appeared in a New York paper:
JEROME AVENUE SITE CHOSEN BY CITY FOR ART CENTER
The Reservoir Tract of 200 Acres to be Developed at Cost of $15,000,000; Outdoor Opera
The sinking fund commission selected the Jerome Park Reservoir tract of 200 acres as the location for a great educational, music, and art center, including an outdoor opera and a bandstand for concerts, to be developed at a cost of $15,000,000. Superintendent Gompert, in a letter to the city chamberlain, states that at the southerly end of the tract was assigned a site for Public School 86, Bronx, and an athletic field, and at the northerly end a site for the De Witt Clinton High School and an athletic field. Between these sites remains a large tract for the proposed music and industrial art high school. He recommends that the city retain permanent ownership of the entire tract.
Such a move as this and on such a tremendous scale must do a great deal to encourage and support art education elsewhere in both elementary and secondary schools. If carefully organized and conducted the New York art center should become the model for many other city art education developments.
TESTS IN ART EDUCATION Standardization in art training has been developing interest in various parts of the country, a natural outcome of the success in attainment tests in other subjects. Two recent experiments are noteworthy in this field.
The Kline-Carey test 14 is a carefully worked out series of representation drawing scales by which the child's drawing ability may be estimated. This consists of a number of pictures by children, graded, after being judged for position in a numerical scale, by many experts throughout the country.
14 The Kline-Carey Measuring Scale for Freehand Drawing. Linus W. Kline and Gertrude L. Carey, Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1923.