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the idea still prevails in many cities that the best type of high-school work to offer is that type which is especially approved by associations of colleges and secondary schools.

Where this situation exists it can not be expected that any great numbers will be attracted to a school the avowed purpose of which is to give training in some specific trade for advantageous entry into employment. When under these conditions an attempt is made to meet the needs of young people of high-school age prior to entrance upon employment there is, in a great majority of cases, more or less of a social stigma attached to those who enroll in the trade school. Because of this and other difficulties surrounding the full-time day trade school on a preemployment basis, there has been a marked tendency to develop trade training on the cooperative plan, whereby boys alternate between work and school every week or every two weeks. While there is considerable evidence that the tendency is toward establishing cooperative part-time and apprentice training, the full-time school, as such, is still an important type of institution which, in many cities throughout the country, is doing an important and valuable work. The tendency toward an increase in part-time and cooperative apprenticeship training under an alternating plan, however, is unmistakable and will undoubtedly increase.


The existing trade schools may be grouped into three principal classes, as follows: (1) Separate schools as a part of a city system of public schools; (2) departments in high schools; (3) State trade schools.

Under suitable conditions as to organization and administration the separate trade school has a fair chance to succeed. The vocational department in the general high school as a rule has a difficult time in maintaining its work on a strictly vocational basis in the academic atmosphere which usually characterizes the city high school.

In some instances, the attempt to establish vocational departments in high schools has had to be abandoned. However, there are numerous instances where such departments are fairly successful and are doing efficient work. The success or failure of such departments depends, at least in part, upon the attitude of the school officials and the high-school principal and his staff toward it, and varies with different school systems and different types of school organization.

Where State trade schools have been established they have as a rule been remarkably successful. The State of Connecticut is definitely committed to the idea of State trade schools. Without

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any reflection upon any city trade schools and vocational departments in high schools, it can fairly be stated that no full-time trade schools anywhere in the country are more efficient than the eight trade schools in the State of Connecticut. Within the past two years definite trade courses have been established at the State School of Science at Wapheton, N. Dak. This school being apart from the academic atmosphere of the city high school is free to set up definite trade courses. In the limited number of trade courses thus far developed the work is eminently successful.


The State of Wisconsin has enacted laws and adopted policies which make it possible to develop vocational education in that State upon a somewhat different basis than is possible in other States. With its State apprentice law, its industrial commission, and separate boards for industrial education, it is possible to set up vocational schools which are in no way hampered by traditional standards. Probably one of the most efficient schools in the United States is the Milwaukee Vocational School. During the past year this school enrolled for courses in the day school a total of 16,355. The maximum number in attendance at any time in the day school was 11,272. The total number enrolled for classes in the night school was 6,397. It must be borne in mind that this, in the main, is a part-time school. The great majority of the students were in attendance but one day of eight hours per week.

The foregoing school includes the following departments: Apprentice, rehabiliation, “permit," and full-time commercial. Apprentices are required to attend one-half day a week until they have completed 400 hours of schooling. The work, in the main, is related to their shop work. Occasionally some shop work is done in the school. In the permit division the students are required to attend eight hours a week until the end of the quarter following their eighteenth birthday. Approximately half of their time is devoted to academic work, some of which is related to the vocational work. Boys are given opportunity of selecting vocational work preparatory to apprenticeship in about 50 lines.


A recent publication of the Federal Board for Vocational Education lists 158 distinct titles of courses offered in full-time day and part-time trade extension schools. The great variety of instruction offered indicates that these schools are to an increasing degree meeting the vocational needs of the people. No one is justified in mak


ing the assertion that the work of trade schools is confined to five or six of the skilled trades. Such a statement would have been true eight years ago but not so now.


The growth of evening trade extension schools and classes has been steady during the past seven years, and during the year 1924 the rate of increase has been somewhat greater than the rate for the previous year. The enrollment in the evening schools receiving Federal aid was, in round numbers, 85,000 for the year 1924, or more than two and one-half times the enrollment in day trade schools.

The eighth annual report of the Federal Board for Vocational Education lists 135 distinct courses as indicating the scope of evening school work. The United States Census report for 1920 lists 11 general groups of occupations. They are: Food and kindred products; Textiles and their products; Iron and steel and their products; Lumber and timber products; Leather and its finished products; Paper and printing; Chemicals; Stone, clay, and glass products; Vehicles for land transportation; Railroad repair shops; and Miscellaneous industrial occupations. Persons from each of these general groups have been enrolled in evening classes. For most of the general groups various numbers of distinct courses have been offered-more than 20 in some instances. The fact that 6,000 coal miners were enrolled in evening trade extension classes in mining subjects during the year 1924 indicates the development of evening school work, and shows the need for organizing specific courses that are of practical value for the occupational improvement of employed persons.


Apprenticeship for the skilled trades is recognized as constituting a problem that must be solved. During the past two years there has been a notable revival of interest in apprenticeship on the part of employers of labor, manufacturers, architects, engineers, and others whose interests are affected by the shortage of skilled workmen. The revival of interest in apprenticeship is not confined to any one line of work, although it is very pronounced at present in connection with the building trades. Much is being accomplished in the promotion of plans for efficient apprenticeship training, not only in the building trades, but in the various machine and mechanical trades. As modern conditions make it impossible to revive the old system of apprenticeship, it is more and more recognized ration

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that the new apprenticeship, to fit modern conditions, can be most effectively operated through cooperation with the public schools.

Experience indicates that the problem involved in apprenticeship plans can be solved only where there is cooperation on the part of at least three groups, viz, the employers, the workers, and the public schools. Each of these is an interested party to any apprenticeship training program. Each has certain peculiar and inherent interests in'any program to be developed, and in addition has certain other cooperative interests common to the other parties. The interests of no one party can be fully developed without the other. This necessitates the setting up of a definite unified objective for an apprenticeship course which will embody the best interests of all parties. In the old apprenticeship days the employer was responsible not only for the trade education but also for whatever general education the apprentice was to receive. The parents as interested parties to the contract aimed to secure both of these benefits to their child. Owing to the changed condition in the industries and to the extension of public education, it is incumbent upon the public schools to assume responsibilities in connection with the training of apprentices.

As this work has developed, organized labor has shown conclusively that it is ready and willing to cooperate to the greatest possible extent in the promotion of effective apprenticeship training. This is not to be wondered at in view of the fact that real labor leaders have always been in favor of the thorough training of apprentices and have always lent their support to programs of vocational education under public control. At this time it is not possible to give definite figures showing the development of apprenticeship plans.

The fact that the State of New Jersey is cooperating in a program of education and training for 2,000 regularly employed apprentices is indicative of the development which is growing throughout the country. Cleveland, Ohio, has more than 1,200 apprentices enrolled in the building trades and this year graduated a class of 150 who completed not only their job training but the courses given in the schools covering the technical aspects of their trades. Bricklaying is one of the trades in which there has been notable success in increasing the number of apprentices through the cooperation of employers and labor. This is evidenced by the fact that in July, 1921, there were 1,427 apprentices and on June 1, 1925, there were 11,602. . .

While the promotion of apprenticeship is essentially a problem to be worked out locally, a very effective background for local development is created through the cooperation of national and State organizations of employers and workers. During the past two years

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school officials and employers and workers' organizations have held a number of joint conferences of a national or State character for the promotion of apprenticeship programs. The Federal Board for Vocational Education has attempted to encourage local initiative in the development of local programs to meet local needs and at the same time has made important contacts with National and State organizations to back up the program. Among the important organizations with which cooperative work has been done are the following: The American Construction Council; the Associated General Contractors of America; the Bricklayers, Masons, and Plasterers' International Union; the Mason Contractors' Association; the National Association of Sheet Metal Contractors; and the National Granite Association. In many cases local development has been promoted because such national organizations have indorsed the program. The Federal Board for Vocational Education has had a number of conferences in which representatives from all the interested groups have participated.

With the growing conviction that education for any particular individual is for the purpose of adjusting that individual to society, there is a manifest tendency to establish fewer part-time schools of the general continuation type and to establish more offering practical courses for training in some phase of the life activities found in the trades and vocations. As a clearer comprehension of the function of part-time education is developed the courses for the employed youth enrolled in these schools are becoming more and more of a vocational nature.

The type of general education as found in the grades and high schools is not adapted to the work of the part-time school, especially for the older boys and girls from 16 to 18 years of age. There is a manifest need for making the work for these older boys and girls more directly related to their vocational needs as determined by their employment. Whether or not the work of the part-time school is looked upon with favor where it has been established depends largely upon the organization and types of courses that have been offered. The more nearly the courses are organized to meet the needs of employment the more favorable is the local attitude toward the part-time work done in the public school.

Probably the greatest development in apprenticeship training has been in connection with the building trades. During the year 1924 there were in Federal-aided classes alone more than 20,000 persons enrolled for apprenticeship and trade-extension courses in the building trades. Five thousand were enrolled as apprentices and students in day trade schools, taking trade preparatory work. Fifteen thousand were employed persons taking trade-extension work.

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