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New York City.—The high-school girl in the clothing course is taught the interdependence of health and clothing. In this connection the clothing essentials to health outlined are, (a) warmth; (b) ventilation as to weight, porousness, absorption, and conductivity; (c) cleanliness; and (d) freedom.
Cleveland, Ohio.—A garment-making project for sixth-grade girls, the making of doll's clothes, is adapted to the needs and purposes of the sixth-grade classes. Hence no doll is permitted to wear French heels or pointed toes, transparent stockings, unpolished or unlaced shoes. The hygiene, suitability, economy, and care of eacli garment are discussed. Sixth-grade girls are not considered too young to learn that washable clothes should be washed and ironed frequently, other clothes shoidd be aired and dry-cleaned often.
Des Moines, Iowa.—The clothing course for the seventh-grade girl includes the topics:
1. Standards for hygienic dress (simplicity, appropriateness, cleanliness, inherent properties of fibers).
2. Care of clothing in daily use—airing, folding, laundering, brushing, pressing, and repairing.
3. Formation of healthful habits of work.
Philadelphia, Pa.—In the grades, beginning with 5B, through the elementary clothing courses, the following health principles are taught:
5B. Proper sleeping conditions.
Why clothing is washed or cleaned. ,
Why clothing should be loose. 6B. (1) Cleanliness—
Body, hands, nails.
Clean underwear. Outer garments.
a. Personal appearance—
Careful adjustment of clothing.
7A. (1) Study of the fo.ur fibers and their characteristics in regard to—
a. Retention or loss of body heat.
b. Retention or loss of moisture.
c. Laundering properties.
(2) Study of the effect of tight garments, shoes, or bands on circulation and health. 7B. (1) Adequate and equal protection of body from low temperature.
(2) Use of bathrobe and bedroom slippers.
(3) Care of the feet (shoes and stockings).
(4) Effect of constricting garments or bands, and of ill-shaped shoes and
high heels. 8A. Clothing for baby—
a. Importance of cleanliness. 6. Importance of warmth. 8B. (1) Some essentials for correct care of skin— a. Individual towel and wash cloth. 6. Frequent sterilization of towel and wash cloth. (2) Some essentials for healthy living conditions—
a. Clean bedding with frequent changes of sheets and pillowcases.
b. Cleanly methods in kitchen, and clean, well sterilized, kitchen
towels and dishcloth.
HOME ECONOMICS PROVIDES TRAINING IN CHILD CARE AND WELFARE
I. In Teacher-Training Institutions.
Training of collegiate character in child care and welfare for the pre-school child began in this country in the Merrill Palmer School of Homemaking, established in Detroit, Mich., in 1920.
This institution during the biennium has cooperated with a number of colleges and universities in providing for the seniors and graduate students of home economics laboratory facilities and courses in the problems of the child.
Dining the summer of 1924, 27 of the leading universities of America offered some courses in "The Health of the Child" designed for doctors and nurses, while, at the same time, 26 institutions—colleges and normal schools—were aiming through similar courses to give specific training in the problems of the child to the teachers of this country.
In 1924 the Chicago University Cooperative Nursery opened its three-story home and placed the nursery in charge of a graduate of home economics.
The practice houses of the college and university departments of home economics give opportunities to their students for the observation and care of children. This experiment has proved so successful that many of the practice houses are maintaining at least one child of pre-school age, and where this arrangement is impossible home-economics seniors have assigned to them for care and observation young children either in the nutrition clinics of the department of home economics or in the community.
The following topics on child care and training illustrate the emphasis placed by the college department of home economics on this subject. The topics are:
I. The child in relation to his environment. II. The rights of the child.
III. Maternity problems.
IV. Care of the newborn infant. Positive health for the pre
school child. Height-weight charts. Clothing in relation to health. V. Recognition of common dangers to health.
VI. Mental and physical growth.
Recently the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial contributed $250,000 to maintain an institute of child welfare at the University of Minnesota. This institute by means of specialists in the various departments at the university, such as psychology, education, pediatrics, physiology, home economics, and sociology, will conduct studies relative to the child. It will also serve as a training center for nursery-school teachers and for leaders in parent education, and assist in an extension program concerning the education of parenthood.
The State Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College of Oklahoma organized a nursery for pre-school children in connection with its teacher-training courses, and the State course of study for home economics outlines a unit in "child care," for both the elementary and high school.
//. In Elementary and Secondary Schools.
In December of 1924 the Highland Park (Mich.) High School opened in connection with its home economics department a nursery school and enrolled 12 children ranging from 2y2 to 4% years of age. This forward-looking move in education is distinctive, for no other public high school in the United States has attempted to provide a laboratory in the form of a nursery for a course in child care designed for seniors in home economics.
Prerequisites for the child-care courses are nutrition and clothing for children. The following tentative outline for discussion periods in child care is given:
1. General instruction, and discussion of aims of nursery schools.
2. Educational importance of daily routine.
3. Food and principles of nutrition.
4. Play equipment, books, songs, plays, etc.
5. Physical care, food, clothing, medical attention.
6. Behavior problems.
7. Conflict of wills.
9. Habit formation.
The day nurseries of Los Angeles, Calif., were taken over for maintenance by the board of education of that city in 1917 and made an integral part of the school system. There are now 16 of these day nurseries which furnish for the elementary-school girl a laboratory for the training in her care of the pre-school child.
In Oakland, Calif., there is a similar organization.
Schenectady, N. Y., has an intermediate school with an enterprising home economics teacher who found that 50 per cent of the girls in this intermediate school "tended baby" when "out of school." Hence she offered to the seventh-grade girls eight 90minute lessons, including:
'1. Information necessary to make the baby grow. 2. Visit to health clinic. 3 and 4. Children's garments young girls can make and how to decorate
them. 5. Ways and reasons for fastening baby's clothes. G. Selection of materials for baby's clothes.
7. Baby's diet.
8. Planning ;md preparation of meals for an older sister and brother.
REPORT OF CHILD CARE AND WELFARE MADE BT THE RESPECTIVE STATE SUPERVISORS
OF HOME ECONOMICS
The status of child care and welfare is reported by State supervisors of home economics of the following States:
Pennsylvania.—Eighty high schools have a child-care course m vocational home economics, with a baby in two of the three teachertraining practice houses.
Delaware.—Child care is not taught as a separate course, but is included in every food and clothing course in the high school.
Iowa.—Rural children in 35 counties have been reached with nutrition projects.
Montana.—In some high schools there are short units in child care. The State college offers a three-credit course with children under observation.
Kentucky.—A few schools offer a unit in child care and infant sowing.
Virginia.—Three children of the Crippled Children's Hospital were adopted by the John Marshall High School classes in home economics. Food, toj-s, and clothing were provided for them. Another school adopted two first-grade children.
Alabama.—All the high schools give one unit in child care. A number of elementary schools carry on practical projects with children.
New Hampshire.—Child care given in the Nashua public schools in cooperation with the visiting nurse. 27301°—27 14
Idaho.—Studied as a special unit in every class. Layettes and clothing for younger children made in many schools, special studies of diets, physical care of the baby, training of children.
North Dakota.—Child care is a part of the second-year home economics course in the high schools of the State and a two-point college course in the North Dakota Agricultural College for senior women. It is combined in the normals, State teachers' college, and university with the work in home nursing.
Louisiana.—Advanced courses of the high schools include the work.
Indiana.—High schools emphasize the work. Milk is served to school children; health records are kept of children, often of the younger children at home; doctors and nurses in a home nursing course offer lectures on this point.
Utah.—A mother craft course for high schools includes diet and clothing for children.
Nebraska.—Child care is taught in two-thirds of the 60 vocational schools.
Kansas.—All vocational schools give child care including observation of young children and some personal care.
New York.—For six weeks 130 high schools give 90 minutes daily. This training is part of the four-year home-making course.
New Mexico.—Is included under health of the family.
Vermont.—During the Christmas season, through cooperation of the Vermont Children's Aid Society, home economics classes adopted children dependent on the State.
The home economics girls made clothes, planned the yearly needs of their particular child, and sent off a box to meet these needs. Special child-care units are introduced in the schools at this time. Home nursing is offered in many schools.
"West Virginia.—Fifteen high schools reimbursed by SmithHughes funds give a unit in child care.
Rhode Island.—Part of the Rhode Island State College course. A play school is maintained one afternoon each week for the preschool child.
Michigan.—Eighteen of the oustanding home economics seniors at the Michigan State College are admitted to the Merrill Palmer School each year. New and revised courses at all the colleges and normal schools are giving practical work.
Oregon.—The Oregon Agricultural College has an organized course in child care which is open to all students on the campus.
Mississippi.—Child-care units are offered in second year of high school, and many of the home projects are selected in this field.
North Carolina.—Some in connection with the home economics department of the Womans College at Greensboro.