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quarters of the movement, and the other members are selected to represent local civic associations, clubs, schools, parent-teacher associations, chambers of commerce, and other organizations interested in the improvement of the home.

Departments of home economics in our public schools and colleges have found it decidedly worth while to cooperate in the local Better Homes campaign, for participation in Better Homes demonstrations makes it possible for the children of any school to familiarize themselves with standards of home art and household economics, with the principles of selection of furniture and equipment, with budgeting of expenses, and with the whole range of the science and art of home making in so far as these can be imparted to persons of their age and background.

THE AMERICAN HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION

The American Home Economics Association has, through the efforts of its executive secretaries, secured the affiliation of all the States except two, thereby increasing the membership of the association in the past two years from 2,717 to 5,995 and from 13 clubs to 42.

All the States now have well-organized associations engaged in various activities such as outlining the State policies in home-economics education, formulating home-economics information tests, sponsoring nutrition programs, extending their influence to the home makers through the State federated clubs and parent-teacher associations, and specifying their ideals regarding home-economics equipment in no uncertain terms.

Five national meetings have been held at the following places: Cleveland, Corvallis, Chicago, New Orleans, and Buffalo.

SOME CONTRIBUTIONS MADE BY THE BUREAU OF EDUCATION TO THE

PROGRESS OF HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION

The following include some contributions of the home economics section of the Bureau of Education to the progress of home economics education :

The Chicago conference called by the Commissioner of Education in July, 1923, in conjunction with the American Home Economics Association, directed attention to the necessity of better teaching methods in home economics and stimulated the formation of committees to study home economics in public schools.

At the national home economics conference called by the Commissioner of education to Washington, D. C., in April, 1924, the place of home economics in the health and citizenship training program was defined and stated. This conference was attended by 62

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home economics supervisors of cities of 10,000 population or more, by 100 home economics teachers, and by 100 other interested persons representing many educative organizations.

In June, 1924, at Buffalo, in connection with the American Home Economics Association, a study was presented to 80 city supervisors concerning the specific contributions made by home economics to wholesome living not made by any other school subject.

The free supply of 10,000 copies of Home Economics Circular No. 18, “ Titles of Completed Research from Home Economics Departments in American Colleges and Universities, 1918 to 1923," was almost immediately exhausted.

This circular did two outstanding things which had not been done before. First, it summarized for the colleges and universities the number as well as the subjects of home economics research accomplished in the various colleges and universities in the United States; this information was not available prior to the publishing of Home Economics Circular No. 18; and, secondly, it stimulated research in home economics departments, which now has been given a material impetus by the passage of the Purnell Act.

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CHAPTER XI
PROGRESS IN KINDERGARTEN EDUCATION

By Nina C. VANDEWALKER

Associate Specialist in Kindergarten Education, Bureau of Education

CONTENTS.--Increase in kindergarten enrollment-Better adjustment of kindergarten to

the school-Progress in teacher-training-Kindergarten legislation-New kindergarten literature-New lines of interest and effort.

INTRODUCTION

Marked progress has been made in the field of kindergarten education during the period from 1922 to 1924. This is shown in the continued increase in the enrollment in the kindergartens of the country; the better adjustment of the kindergarten to the school as a whole; the improvement in the training of kindergarten teachers; and the marked increase in the output of literature bearing on the subject.

I. INCREASE IN KINDERGARTEN ENROLLMENT

During the period from 1920–1922 the number of children enrolled in the kindergartens of the United States showed an increase of 44,881. This brought the total enrollment to 555,830. Of this number 500,807 were enrolled in the public school kindergartens and 55,023 in those“ other than public.” During the period from 1922– 1924 the number enrolled was 617,373, which was an increase of 61,573. Of these, 562,897 were in the public schools and 54,456 in those of the other type. This was a falling off of 567 in the latter type of kindergartens. The greater increase during the period from 1922-1924 shows that the progress is cumulative. The estimated number of children of 4 and 5 years in the United States for 1920 was 4,765,661. The number enrolled in kindergartens was 11.7 per cent of that number. The estimated number for 1922 is 4,848,902. The increase in the enrollment for 1922–1924 has raised this to 12.7.

In the degree of progress made in each biennium there are marked differences among the States. In 1919–20, for example, the gain of 37,811 for both public and private kindergartens represented 32 States. The aggregate gain of 44,881 in 1920–1922 represented 39 and the District of Columbia. The gain of 61,373 in 1922–1924 represents 39 States and the District of Columbia. The States having gains and losses differ to some extent from year to year. In 1921–22, for example, the States having the greatest numerical gains in enrollment were, respectively: Missouri, 5,849; 1 New York, 5,497; Ohio, 3,696; California, 3,656. In 1922–1924 the list differed in some measure as to the States and the increases in each. They are: California, 14,666; New York, 6,048; Michigan, 5,772; Ohio, 5,732; Massachusetts, 3,862. A number of States report larger increases than usual. Pennsylvania has a gain of over 3,000; Illinois, Iowa, and Texas gains of over 2,000; and nine other StatesColorado, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Kansas, Maryland, Minnesota, Nebraska, and Wisconsin-gains of over 1,000 each.

The States also fluctuate in the matter of losses in kindergarten enrollment. Those that reported losses in 1920–1922 were Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Idaho, Iowa, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, and Virginia. These losses in the Western States were not surprising, in view of the agricultural depression in these States. The losses reported in 1922–1924 were in Indiana, Louisiana, Maine, Missouri, Montana, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Dakota, and Utah. It is worth noting that but one State, Montana, reports losses for both years. Since the kindergarten gained but a slight foothold in the South for many years, the gains in the Southern States are deserving of special comment. In 1920–1922 all these States showed gains except Virginia. In 1924 Virginia also showed a gain, but Louisiana and North Carolina showed losses. Of these States, the four having the highest gains were Florida, 1,430; Georgia, 1,536; Maryland, 1,613; and Texas, 2,581. A study of the public-school kindergartens and those other than public would doubtless show differences in the groupings and in the changes from year to year, but the general character of the statistics would be much the same. A comparison of the statistics for 1922–1924 with those of 1920–1922 shows the following facts: That the number of school systems having kindergartens has increased from 1,203 to 1,477; that the number of children enrolled has increased from 555,830 to 617,373; the number of kindergartens from 8,889 to 9,813; and the number of teachers from 11,842 to 12,958.

II. BETTER ADJUSTMENT OF THE KINDERGARTEN TO THE

SCHOOL

The improvement in the adjustment of the kindergarten to the school is evident, but it has been a matter of progressive development and can not easily be marked off into definite periods. In the

1 The abnormal gain reported for Missouri in 1920–1922 was clearly erroneous. It is probable that no decrease occurred in that State in 1922–1924.- Editor.

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