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of adults, and the increased enrollment in States where such training has been provided is due in large measure to the indorsements of the new type of teaching by the immigrants and native illiterates who have been taught by trained experts who know what to teach, how to teach, and how much to teach. There is no more important or valuable form of State service than that of training teachers. Fourteen States offer such training. Obviously, there is an urgent need for the immediate expansion of this phase of the work in every State.

Elementary education in English and citizenship for adults, by States

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Elementary education in English and citizenship for adults, by States—Continued

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FEDERAL LEADERSHIP IN ADULT EDUCATION From 1915 to 1919 the Federal Bureau of Education provided educational leadership for immigrant education programs in the United States. Mr. H. H. Wheaton and Mr. Fred C. Butler rendered valuable assistance to the school people and representatives of civic organizations who were interested in improving the then limited programs of Americanization. This work of the bureau was discontinued soon after the war, owing to financial retrenchments. The schools suffered when Federal direction was withdrawn, and especially in 1919, when public opinion had been educated as to the need for Americanization programs by the war-time propaganda on this subject.

The State and local directors of school programs for aliens in 1920 organized as a department in the National Education Association. The outstanding aim of this organization has been to secure Federal educational direction for this work. The department of immigrant education was enlarged in 1924 to include the supervisors and teachers of native illiterates, and the name was changed to the National Department of Adult Education of the N. E. A. At the 1925 meeting of this department in Indianapolis, resolutions were adopted indorsing the recently announced competitive examination for the position of specialist in adult education in the United States Bureau of Education. The appointment of such a specialist will undoubtedly strengthen the work nationally and will insure the necessary development of adult-education programs in the large number of States where the ambitious illiterate and immigrant have no opportunity for learning English and preparing for citizenship.

The immigration restriction laws of 1924 have cut down considerably the number of new immigrants to be admitted to the United States in the future, and consequently the number needing instruction in English and citizenship. Attention is called, however, to three significant considerations, as follows:

1. The number of immigrants admitted under the new law in 1924 was 706,896.

2. The total number of illiterate foreign-born persons residing in the United States in 1920 was 1,763,740.

3. The total number of aliens residing in the United States in 1920 was 4,364,909.

Obviously we have a tremendous educational problem on our hand in the number of foreign born now here who need school help, and an annual influx of approximately 500,000 under the new law is large enough to need a continuous program of adult citizenship education.

There is considerable misunderstanding in the minds of many people about the need for further work. Surely the facts set forth in the three considerations listed answer this question in convincing

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form. No extended reference will be made in this report to the educational activities of the Bureau of Naturalization. Suffice it to say that this Federal office has furnished the public schools an abundant supply of lesson materials for English and citizenship classes. The schools have been helped also by the lists of names and addresses of applicants for first and second papers provided by the bureau. The school people generally have cooperated with the Bureau of Naturalization in preparing petitioners for naturalization procedure.

The present outlook for effective cooperation between all public agencies that touch the immigrant in his adjustment to the normal life of an American citizen is most hopeful. The schools can not accomplish this work alone. School leaders and teachers must invite and seek the active cooperation of every group of citizens interested in helping immigrants to become truly Americanized.

REFERENCES California State Board of Education. Thirty-first biennial report of the

superintendent of public instruction, September 15, 1924. (See report of the

assistant superintendent, Miss Ethel Richardson, in charge of adult education.) Carnegie Corporation of New York. Office memorandum, February 5, 1925:

Series II, Adult education. Americanization studies, Harper & Bros.:

Schooling of the immigrant. Frank V. Thompson, superintendent of public

schools, Boston, Mass. America via the neighborhood. John Daniels. Old World traits transplanted. Robert E. Park, professorial lecturer,

University of Chicago, and Herbert A. Miller, professor of sociology,

Oberlin College.
Immigrant health and the community. Michael M. Davis, jr., director of

Boston Dispensary.
A stake in the land. Peter A. Speek, United States Library of Congress,

Russian section.
New homes for old. S. P. Breckinridge, assistant professor of household

administration, University of Chicago.
Adjusting immigrant and industry. William M. Leiserson, chairman of

labor adjustment boards, Rochester, N. Y., and New York, N. Y.
The immigrant press and its control. Robert E. Park, professorial lecturer,

University of Chicago.
The immigrant's day in court. Kate Holladay Claghorn, instructor in social

research, New York School of Social Work.
Americans by choice. John P. Gavit, vice president New York Evening

Post.

Summary. Allen T. Burns, director Studies in methods of Americanization. Lombard, Ellen C. Cooperation in adult education. United States Bureau of

Education, Home Education Circular No. 6. Bibliographies on Americanization and illiteracy programs by: United States

Bureau of Education; American Library Association; and Massachusetts State Department of Education, division of libraries.

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