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University of North Carolina: Visual instruction service inaugurated.

University of Oklahoma : Workers' education service begun.

University of Oregon: Americanization work; radio broadcasting of university lectures; local history contests; development of welfare week ends, the aim being to give people of the communities practical demonstrations of the services of various State agencies.

Pennsylvania State College: Foreman training; utility economics.

l'niversity of South Carolina: Package library service inaugurated.

l'niversity of South Dakota : Inaugurated service to debating in the high schools.

University of Southern California : Inaugurated courses in real estate under correspondence study department.

University of Virginia: Temporary organization of Virginia society for crippled children; home reading courses of Bureau of Education; institutes of citizenship; publication of News Letter edited by the department of rural economics and rural sociology; championships in tennis, current and monthly high-school publications, and prizes for the best verse and short story, inaugurated through Virginia High School Literary and Athletic League; package libraries.

State College of Washington: Inaugurated classes in salesmanship and personnel efficiency. These classes are conducted intensively for a period of two weeks each.

In response to the request, “ Please give details concerning lines of service that have had unusual development for the years 1923 and 1924," the following information was obtained :

Visual Instruction: The University of Alabama reports that visual instruction made rapid strides, stating, “ We obtained the services of a full-time expert, bought some $2,000 worth of material, anıl circulated reels of high-grade eclucational pictures." The University of Colorado reports that motion-picture service, slide service, and art prints were distributed throughout the State. In motion pictures, 144 reels, 41 recreational and 103 educational, were distributed. The educational films were classified under industrial, scenic, historical, patriotic, and health. Seventy-one sets of stereopticon slides on patriotic, scenic, industrial, scientific, and general topics, including war slides, health, religious, etc., were distributed. There were 97 communities served, with a reported attendance of 65,351.

The service was well distributed throughout the State, according to the report of the director of extension.

Community Service Work: The University of Alabama reported that the community service work was very successful, more than 500 lectures and addresses being delivered in the State.

Women's Club Work: The University of Alabama reported that the women's club programs furnished by the extension division were very widely used, more than 6,000 women being enrolled in groups in which programs were used. The University of Kentucky also reported unusual development in their women's club work program.

Workers' Education: This phase of extension work had unusual development in the t'niversities of California and Oklahoma and in the Massachusetts Department of Education. In California hundreds of classes were organized, and these were attended by thousands of students. In addition to the class work, the extension division supervised a number of lectures for the benefit of workers. The University of Oklahoma reported the organization of 24 classes in workers' education, with subjects as follows: Philosophy, 6; economics, 1; psychology, 4; English, 5; arithmetic, 5; debating, 1; Spanish, 1; shorthand, 1. According to the director of extension, 366 persons enrolled in these classes. The work is received with great enthusiasm. In addition to the class work, lecturers in workers' education visited 42 communities, lecturing to 3,550 persons, and holding personal interviews with some 1,250. The total number of persons served through the workers' education program is estimated at 5,282. In the class work special textbooks are used, and the classes constitute discussion groups. The work is for both men and women, and for all trades and occupations.

The adult alien education under the supervision of the extension division of the Department of Education of Massachusetts, as authorized by the general laws of that State about 1920, has had a steady development since it was inaugurated. The work is conducted in what is known as English and citizenship classes in evening schools, in factories, and in neighborhood classes (clubs, homes, churches, day classes). While reports for 1924 were not available, the 1923 report indicates a total of 1,567 classes organized, 819 being in evening schools, 306 in factories, and 412 in neighborhood classes. The work is carried on under the provisions of the law, through the cooperation of industrial plants and public schools, under the general supervision and direction of the extension division. Stitistics show that factories in 34 cities and towns cooperated in conducting adult immigrant classes during the school year 1922–23, while 113 cities and towns operated under the provisions of the law in carrying out this type of education. Of these, 74 employed full-time or part-time directors and supervisors for this type of work. Enrollment in classes for adult immigrants increased from 9,030 for the first year after the passage of the act to 27,658 for the year 1922–23. .

Merchants' institutes represent types of unusual activity in the Universities of Colorado and Kansas. In Colorado the institutes are held for a period of four to five days, usually under the auspices


of the local chamber of commerce and the university extension divi-
sion. One or more specialists are brought in for two periods a day
for lectures and discussions. These institutes are entirely supported
by the local merchants and those desiring to take the course. Sta-
tistics indicate that the institutes are largely attended and are very
fruitful in stimulating merchants to bring about better business
conditions and closer cooperation between the farmers and the
business interests of the town. The following is a program showing
the topics discussed at a merchants' institute held at Trinidad, Colo.,
November 2–6, 1925:
Monday, November 2–

9.30 a. m. “Planning for More Business."

7.30 p. m. “The Winning Salesman.” Tuesday, November 39.30 a.m. “How to Get returns from Advertising Expendi

tures." 7.30 p. m. “ The Human Side of Retailing." Wednesday, November 49.30 a.m. “Retail Credits and How to Control Them.”

Noon. « The Merchant and His Problem.”
7.30 p. m. “Knowing the Goods You Sell."
Thursday, November 5,-
9.30 a. m. “ Cost of Operating Retail Stores in Colorado.”

Noon. “ Building a Community.”
7.30 p.m. “ Fundamentals of Business from the Personal

Friday, November 6
9.30 a. m. “How to Write Advertising that Pulls.”

Noon. « Teamwork for Community Development." 7.30 p.m. “Cashing in on Sales Opportunities.” The director of extension in the University of Kansas reports that the greatest development in any single activity of extension work during the year 1924–25 was in the merchants' institutes, in which programs were offered in cooperation with the local commercial organizations, ranging in length from two to five days. Speakers were furnished both from the university faculty and specialists from outside to discuss the special problems of retail merchants and general problems having to do with community development. These institutes were conducted in 12 communities, the communities in general bearing practically all of the expenses. The university assisted in only a few cases in bearing the administrative expenses. In addition to general lectures on salesmanship, advertising, store management, etc., regular courses were conducted in such special subjects as showcard writing, window trimming, preparing advertising copy, and accounting. The purpose of these courses is to provide both the




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employers and the employees in retail stores with the benefit of the experience of the most successful retailers throughout the country, as well as the information accumulated by such agencies as the Graduate School of Business Research of Harvard University, and many large commercial organizations which are conducting special investigations along retail lines. In addition to the merchants' institutes, a merchants' short course is annually held at the University of Kansas.

Municipal research had unusual development in the University of Colorado. The Bureau of Government Research is headquarters for the Colorado Municipal League, and as such serves as a clearing house of information for municipal officials. Studies requiring investigation, such as installation of bookeeping systems, efficiency studies of municipal departments, etc., are made for cities or civic organizations at cost; that is, actual necessary traveling expenses. Surveys and reports for State departments, counties, school districts, and towns and cities, covering specific problems confronting these organizations are made and recommendations made looking toward securing greater economy and efficiency in administration. Assistance in legislative drafting is also furnished. The bureau is the headquarters for the State Association of Commercial Organizations, and, as such, renders assistance to chambers of commerce and other commercial and civic organizations in dealing with their problems of organization and operation.

Child health clinics were also a feature of progress made in extension in the State of Colorado. Five State organizations that engage in State-wide health work cooperate in these conferences and clinics, including the Colorado Tuberculosis Association, the State board of health, State dental association, Colorado child welfare bureau, and the bureau of community organization of the extension division. These conferences and clinics are held for the purpose of giving physical examinations to children, preferably children of pre-school age, and of furnishing parents of such children with information concerning the results of the clinics. In addition to the clinics, public lectures on health are given in the community in which the clinics are being held.

Correspondence study work, or class center work, or both, had unusual development, according to reports from the Universities of Indiana, Missouri, North Carolina, Oregon, South Dakota, and Texas.

In Indiana the number of different students enrolled in class centers increased from 3,233 for 1921–22 to 5,406 in 1923–24, an increase of approximately 50 per cent during the biennium.

The development in correspondence instruction in the University of Missouri has been in the general field of agriculture, including animal husbandry, entomology, farm management, field crops, horticulture, poultry husbandry, and soils. These are noncredit courses.

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From November 1, 1922, to October 31, 1924, figures furnished for Missouri show that there were 19 extension class centers and 139 different classes conducted. There were 2,307 registrations by 2,158 different students in these classes. University professors traveled to these 49 communities once or twice each week to meet the classes. The director reports that center classes and correspondence instruction work doubled in size during the biennial period.

The University of Oregon had almost 30 per cent increase in enrollments in correspondence study and class centers during the biennial period, notable growth being reported from the Portland center.

The University of South Dakota reports that its correspondence study work has been trebled during the biennial period.

The University of Texas has had an increase of approximately 60 per cent in enrollments for correspondence work during the biennial period.

Package library service had unusual development in the Universities of Indiana, South Carolina, Kentucky, and Texas. In Indiana the circulation increased for the biennial period from 2,359 to 3,812. This service for 1923–24 was furnished to 413 communities, serving 28,212 persons. Hundreds of modern, everyday topics of interest to the people were the bases of package libraries.

The University of South Carolina, through its director of extension, reports that in 1923–24 the package library service had its greatest growth, its work being shown in the following figures: Plays distributed, 2,414; readings, 15,018; reference books, 306; package libraries, 2,466; articles, 15,544; club programs, 735; reading courses, 62.

The University of Kentucky reports a large increase in package library service and study-club programs in connection with the development of women's clubs in the State in 1924. The increase in circulation of package libraries in the University of Texas has been from a little more than 10,000 in 1922 to 12,700 in 1924, an increase of about 30 per cent. There were 1,800 permanent package libraries distributed on more than 1,000 different subjects.

Radio courses were broadcasted by the extension divisions of the University of Arkansas, University of Pittsburgh, University of Oregon, Pennsylvania State College, University of Florida, the Massachusetts Department of Education, and the University of Wisconsin.

In 1924 the Legislature of Florida appropriated $50,000 for a radio broadcasting station to be placed in the University of Florida under the supervision of the general extension division. Of especial interest in this connection is a report on Massachusetts university extension courses given from Westinghouse Electric broadcasting station WBZ, as reported by Director James A. Moyer. In the

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