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deaf pupils. A Michigan act authorized the board of education of any school district to provide special classes for the deaf and also for the blind. A Minnesota law now empowers the State commissioner of education to grant permission to school districts to establish and maintain special classes for deaf children where five or more such children may attend, and a State subvention of $250 per child is allowed.

The Legislatures of Illinois and Michigan passed acts in 1923 authorizing local school boards to establish and maintain classes for crippled children, and in each case the State grants funds in aid of these classes. A New Jersey act of 1023 authorizes counties to participate in the maintenance of homes and hospitals for crippled children. An Oregon act of the same year directs school districts to create "crippled children's instruction funds," to be used in employing visiting teachers for the crippled. A New York act of 1924 provides a " teacher's quota "—that is, a sum^from the State treasury, apportioned on the teacher basis—for each teacher of a special class for physically defective children, including the deaf, the blind, and the crippled. A Kentucky act of 1924 provides for special classes for children with defective eyesight.

Two States in 1923 made special provisions for mentally backward children. A Xew York act authorized the State commissioner of education to apportion for each teacher of a special class for children of retarded mental development one-half of the salary paid, but not to exceed $1,000 per teacher. An Oregon act applies to cities of 10,000 inhabitants or more. It provides for the establishment of a department of research and guidance in any city of this group and for the maintenance of special classes for "educationally exceptional children," by which is meant both those who are able to advance more rapidly than the average child and those who may be

retarded.

CONCLUSION

But for space limitation, some treatment of various other subjects could be introduced here. Legislative enactments with respect to high schools, vocational education, institutions of higher learning, the regulation of schoolhouse construction, and possibly some other subjects not treated in this review present phases of interest, but the field of school legislation is an extensive one, and not all legislative acts can be noted in a brief review of this kind. Discussion of several of the subjects omitted from this chapter will be found in other chapters of the Biennial Survey of Education.

CHAPTER XVII
EDUCATIONAL BOARDS AND FOUNDATIONS

By Henry R. Evans

Editorial Division, Bureau, of Education

Contents.—General Education Board—Rockefeller Foundation—Carnegie Corporation of New York—Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching—Jeanes fund— John F. Slater fund—Phelps-Stokes fund—Baron de nlrsch fund—-American-Scandinavian Foundation—American Field Service fellowships for French universities— Juillard Musical Foundation—Commission for relief in Belgium Educational Foundation—Kahn Foundation for the foreign travel of American teachers—Commonwealth fund—Engineering-Economics Foundation—Julius Rosenwald fund.

GENERAL EDUCATION BOARD

The General Education Board has, since its foundation in 1902, to July 1, 1924, appropriated $116,727,895.38 for various phases of educational endeavor. Of this sum, $59,313,857.68 was paid to or set aside for colleges and other institutions for whites, $6,902,813.91 for educational institutions for negroes; and $999,207.09 for miscellaneous objects.1

The sum of $11,370,260.39 was appropriated by the board for the year ended June 30, 1924. Of this amount, $4,683,333 represents appropriations from principal and $6,686,927.39 appropriations from income.

The income receipts of the General Education Board were as follows: Balance, July 1, 1923, $9,240,224.48; proceeds of sale of real estate, $342,502.22; refunds on account of other payments made in previous years, $17,590.85; income for the year, $6,361,821.04. Total, $15,962,139.29.

The statement of disbursements of income for educational purposes is as follows:

For whites.—Art exhibition of work of Professor Cizek's pupils $5,000. Colleges and schools: Endowment and general purposes, $1,113,241.94; to increase teachers' salaries, $667,203.58; fellowships and scholarships, $63,151.84. Indiana demonstration county educational units, $31,966.88; Indiana State department of education, $6,000; Kentucky Educational Association, $2,281.05; Lincoln School, $166,624.64; medical schools, $1,874,098.23; professors of secondary education, $55,897.94; rural school agents, $83,617.67; State agents

1 Data compiled from report filed with the Secretary of the Interior.

for secondary education, $59,714.67; teachers' certification law of Indiana, $793.69; vocational arts survey, $5,735.70.

For negroes.—Colleges and schools: Endowment and general purposes, $389,376.34; to increase teachers' salaries, $89,000. County training schools, $89,732.06; critic teachers, $11,848.53; expenses of students at summer schools, $7,249.24; John F. Slater fund, $17,657.05; medical schools, $160,777.53; negro rural school fund, $77,050; rural school agents, $70,541.60; scholarships, $450; summer schools, $33,874.52.

Miscellaneous.—American Classical League, $32,005.24; Bureau of Educational Measurements, $1,953.66; conferences, $2,051.79; division of educational relations, $2,730.16; educational investigation and research, $100.28; general survey of educational conditions and needs in Indiana, $33.95; improvement of accounting systems in educational institutions, $4,711.70; national committee on mathematical requirements, $19,228.30; public-school finance, $18,750; report on medical education, $4,799.87; rural-school supervision, $20,014.90; study of distribution of physicians in the United States, $4,686.62; study of museums, $16,966.95; survey of Greenwich (Conn.) public schools, $148.09; surveys (miscellaneous), $45,498.85. Total, $5,256,565.06. Administration, $313,870.98. Grand total, $5,570,436.04.

Income on hand June 30, 1924, as accounted for on balance sheet, $10,391,703.25.

President: Wickliffe Rose, 61 Broadway, New York, N. Y.

Secretary: Abraham Flexner, 61 Broadway, New York, N. Y.

ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION

The activities of the Rockefeller Foundation for 1924 are summarized as follows by George E. Vincent, president of the foundation: 2

During the year 1924 the International health board, the China medical board, the division of medical education, and the division of studies of the RockefeUer Foundation (1) underwrote to the amount of $350,000 a plan for publishing' an international abstract journal of the biological sciences; (2) began issuing bulletins which report progress in medical education in many countries; (3) helped to spread internationally knowledge about medical equipment and teaching methods through surveys by staff members, commissions of scientists, visiting professors, and traveling fellows;. (4) hastened developments in the medical schools of the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, Edinburgh, Wales, Montreal, McGill, Sao Paulo, Hongkong, and Siam, and of the American University at Beirut; (5) maintained a modern medical school and teaching hospital in Peking; (6) aided 3 other medical schools and 17 hospitals in China; (7) helped to improve the teaching of physics, chemistry, and biology in two Chinese and nine foreign institutions in China and in the Government University in Siam; (8) had a part in the development of professional training for sanitarians and hygienists at Harvard University and

- Rockefeller Foundation: A Review for 1924, p. 48. New York, 1025,

in schools and institutes in London, Prague, Warsaw, and Sao Paulo; (9) gave funds for nursing education at Yale University and in schools and hospitals in Brazil, France, Yugoslavia, Poland, and the Philippines; (10) kept a mobile staff on guard against yellow fever in Mexico and Central America; (11) at the request of Brazil joined in an attack upon this disease from 11 centers along the northern coast; (12) helped to show the possibilities of malaria control in 13 American States and made malaria surveys or studies in Haiti, Porto Rico, Nicaragua, Brazil, Italy, Palestine, Queensland, and the Philippines; (13) either continued or began antihookworm work in conjunction with 32 States and countries in the West Indies, Central America and Mexico, South America, Europe, and the Far East; (14) contributed to the budgets of rural health services in 207 counties in 24 American States and in New Brunswick, Brazil, France, and Czechoslovakia; (15) continued to aid the epidemiological intelligence service of the health section of the League of Nations; (16) contributed to the League of Nations' international study tours or interchanges for 99 health officers from 20 countries; (17) provided directly or indirectly fellowships for 864 individuals of 33 different nations; (18) lent staff members and made minor gifts to many Governments and institutions for various kinds of counsel and aid; (19) assisted mental-hygiene projects both in the United States and in Canada, demonstrations in dispensary development in New York City, the growth of antituberculosis work in France, and other undertakings in public health, medical education, and allied fields.

During the year 1924, 864 individuals from 33 different countries received from the foundation some form of fellowship stipend, either directly through a board or indirectly through an independent administrative agency. The total amount expended upon fellowships for the year was $585,148.

The income from investments was a little more than eight millions, of which $7,288,823 was required to meet the obligations which came due during the year.

President: George E. Vincent, 61 Broadway, New York, N. Y.

Secretary: Edwin R. Embree, 61 Broadway, New York, N. Y.

THE CARNEGIE CORPORATION OF NEW YORK

The Carnegie Corporation comprises two trusts, as follows: One for the promotion and dissemination of knowledge and understanding among the people of the United States and one for like objects in Canada and other British dominions. According to the report of President F. P. Keppel for the year ended September 30, 1924, the assets of the corporation on October 1, 1923, amounted to $133,659,024.17, of which $124,936,274.44 constituted the value of the original endowment and the remainder cash and sucurities accumulated out of the income. During the year the income of the corporation was $7,397,714.13. During the year ending September 30, 1924, the corporation expended $12,948,619.10 for educational and other endeavors in the United States. Of this total, $12,349,110.72 was based on grants voted by the trustees in previous years. For the furtherance of knowledge and understanding in Canada and other British dominions the amount paid out was $89,399.29, of which $29,500 was based on grants voted in previous years. During the same period grants were voted from income of the principal fund amounting to $2,448,540.94, of which $1,615,599.98 was absolute and $808,940,96 was conditional. For the fund applicable elsewhere than in the United States of America the total of grants was $757,575.01.

During the foregoing fiscal year the corporation made " the largest distribution of funds in its history and at the same time increased its obligations by the smallest annual sum since the year of its organization." Carnegie Institute, of Pittsburgh, received $16,327,376.25, of which sum $8,000,000 was paid over to the Pittsburgh authorities in June, 1924. Other grants are as follows:

National Research Council and National Academy of Sciences, $5,000,000; educational institutions in eastern Canada, $3,000,000; Institute of Economics, $1,650,000; National Bureau of Economic Research, $150,000; Institute for Research in Land Economics and Public Utilities, $62,500; Food Research Institute, located at Stanford University, California, $704,000; American Law Institute, engaged in formulating a restatement of the law, $1,075,000; Johns Hopkins Medical School for an outpatient building and diagnostic clinic, $2,000,000; New York Academy of Medicine, $1,000,000.

American. Library Association, for general support and for the conduct of certain special activities, $164,100; Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, to aid in publishing an economic and social history of the "World War, $350,000; Harvard University, for the training of personnel for museum service, $100,000; Institute of International Education, $182,500; Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education, $108,000; University of California, for a study of pyorrhea and its possible relation to other human maladies, $85,000; National Institute of Public Administration, $40,000; committee on legal aid work, $85,000; Union University for the Albany Medical College, $52,500; Junior College, St. John's, Newfoundland, $75,000, and University of King's College, for endowment, $600,000 (part of $3,000,000 gift for education in eastern Canada); and to various agencies for research in insulin, $43,000.

President: Frederick P. Keppel, 522 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y.

Secretary: James Bertram, 522 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y.

CARNEGIE FOUNDATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF TEACHING

The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, in its report for the year ending June 30, 1924, further develops the foundation's plan of insurance and annuities, through the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association, and presents the current results of a continuous study of pension systems. During the year the

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