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STATISTICS OF UNIVEESITIES, COLLEGES, AND PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS, 1923-1924
For the school year 1923-24 reports were received from 913 universities, colleges, and professional schools. Of this number 144 are under public control and 769 under private control; 150 are independent professional schools. There are 165 schools of theology, 124 schools of law, 80 schools of medicine, 43 schools of dentistry, 63 schools of pharmacy, 6 schools of osteopathy, and 12 schools of veterinary medicine. In 1922 reports were received from 780 universities, colleges, and professional schools. The addition of 133 reports of schools in 1924 is due in part to the efforts of field agents of the Bureau of Education, who secured many reports by personal visits.
PROFESSORS AND INSTRUCTORS
The total number of professors and instructors who are men, in both public and private schools, is 44,345; and the number who are women is 11,934, or a total of 56,279. In the institutions under public control 15,478 professors and instructors are men and 3,667 are women. In the institutions under private control 28,867 professors and instructors are men and 8,267 are women. This makes a total of 19,145 professors and instructors in schools under public control and 37,134 in schools under private control.
The total number of students enrolled in all the institutions is 726,124, of which number 457,701 are men and 268,423 are women. Of the total number, 38,825 men and 23,033 women were enrolled in preparatory departments; 289,817 men and 196,482 women in collegiate departments; 18,444 men and 10,355 women in graduate departments; 85,865 men and 5,651 women in professional departments; and 33,144 men and 39,759 women were registered as unclassified and special students. Schools of theology enrolled 12,358 students; schools of law, 35,732; schools of medicine, 18,900; schools of dentistry, 12,947; schools of pharmacy, 9,951; schools of osteopathy, 1,117; and schools of veterinary medicine, 511. Schools of engineering enrolled 57,699 students. Institutions under public control enrolled 166,860 men and 88,770 women; those under private control enrolled 290,841 men and 179,653 women. There were also enrolled 189,943 additional students in summer schools, 4,012 in winter short courses, and 140,846 in extension and correspondence courses.
During the school year 1923-24 the universities and colleges conferred 36,258 baccalaureate degrees upon men and 25,027 upon women. These institutions and the professional schools together conferred 6,447 graduate degrees upon men and 2,814 upon women. The professional schools conferred 17,357 first degrees, distributed as follows: Schools of theology, 1,319; schools of law, 6,848; schools of medicine, 3,642; schools of dentistry, 3,356; schools of pharmacy, 2,839; schools of osteopathy, 204; and schools of veterinary medicine, 95. In all, 1,096 honorary degrees were conferred, none of which were Ph. D. degrees. Included above in the graduate degrees are 1,064 Ph. D. degrees, 914 being conferred upon men and 150 upon women.
In 1924 the value of grounds belonging to universities, colleges, and professional schools is reported as $168,257,572; of buildings as $713,348,357. The total value of libraries, scientific apparatus, machinery, furniture, and other contents of buildings is reported as $175,323,131. The productive funds total $814,718,813. The total amount of benefactions received during the year is $81,722,887. The number of volumes in the libraries of these institutions is 33,025,478.
The total receipts of universities, colleges, and professional schools for 1923-24 are reported as $388,242,587, including receipts for endowments. If receipts for endowments are excluded, the total is $341,515,910. The following amounts were received from the sources indicated: Student fees, $81,171,612; room rent, $8,934,749; board, $28,028,858; productive funds, $40,431,608; State or city for increase of plant, $18,828,593; State or city for current expenses, $73,423,956; United States Government, $13,641,424; private benefactions for increase of plant, $22,632,735; private benefactions for endowment, $46,726,677; private benefactions for current expenses, $12,375,326; all other sources, $42,047,049. The total income for the year for public institutions, including additions to endowments, is $153,228,195; for private institutions, $235,014,392.
Table 1 presents historical statistics for instructors, students, and degrees, by 10-year periods, from 1890 to the present time. There were enrolled in 1890, excluding duplicates and preparatory students, a total of 121,942 students in collegiate courses. In 1900 this enrollment had reached 167,999; in 1910 it was 266,654; and in 1924 it amounted to 664,266. During this 34-year period the general population increased about 78 per cent, while enrollment of collegiate students increased 445 per cent. During this period enrollments in all kinds of secondary students increased 951 per cent. College enrollment, therefore, has grown nearly 6 times as fast as the general population, and secondary school enrollments have grown about 12 times as fast as the general population. Since college growth must of necessity come through the secondary schools, the continuous growth of the secondary schools becomes one of primary importance.
The number of instructors, excluding those in preparatory departments, in 1890 is reported as 10,762, in 1900 as 18,056, in 1910 as 29,083, and in 1924 as 51,907. The number of students per teacher for each of these four years is 11.3, 9.3, 9.2, and 12.8.
From 1922 to 1924 the number of baccalaureate degrees conferred increased from 47,854 to 61,285; the number of first professional degrees from 12,053 to 17,357; and the number of graduate degrees from 7,332 to 9,261. During this two-year period the amount of productive funds of these institutions increased from $699,213,452 to $814,718,813, and the total annual receipts from $326,535,304 to $387,694,609. There is also an increase in student fees from $64,296,212 in 1922 to $81,168,998 in 1924. The student fees in 1924 are about 21 per cent of the total receipts, which means that for every dollar the student pays $4 more must come from other sources.
The summer-school enrollment increased from 25,538 men and 52,521 women in 1918 to 36,469 men and 58,369 women in 1920, to 62,994 men and 85,069 women in 1922, and to 76,155 men and 113,788 women in 1924. This is an annual increase of about 20 per cent for the men and 13 per cent for the women. In 1918, 33 per cent of the summer-school enrollment were men, and in 1924 this had increased to 40 per cent. The increase in enrollment in 1924 over 1918 is 198 per cent for the men and 117 per cent for the women.