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Created as a Department March 13, 1867
Made an office of the Interior Department, July 1, 1869


Henry Barnard, LL. D.,
March U, 1867, to March 15, 1870

John Eaton, Ph. D., LL. D.,
March 16, 1870, to August 5, 1886

Nathaniel H. R. Dawson, L. H. D.,

August 6, 1886, to September 8, 1889

William T. Harris, Ph. D., LL. D.,

September 12, 1889, to June 80, 1906

Elmer Ellsworth Brown, Ph. D., LL. D.,
July 1, 1906, to June 80, 1911

Philander Priestley Claxton, Litt. D., LL. D.,
July 8, 1911, to June 1,1921

John James Tigert, M. A. (oxon), Ed. D., LL. D.,

June 2, 1921, to date ii



Central in the influences which have directed development during
the two years is the rising cost of higher education. As one element
in the educational costs of the Nation, higher education has been sub-
jected to the restraining influences of compulsory economy. But be-
cause such a small proportion of the taxpayers participate directly in
higher educational activities, the colleges and universities have been
subjected to more criticism, perhaps, than other elements of the
educational system of the United States.

The whole series of facts with reference to the cost of higher

education had, at the opening of the period which this discussion

covers, been presented to the public and to educators with decided

emphasis. The income of higher institutions in 1912, excluding

additions for endowment, was $89,835,787; by 1922 this had increased

to $272,815,703. This threefold increase in money costs during the

10-year period, an increase much greater than the increase in popula-

tion or in the income of the country, caused great concern.

The most important element in accounting for the increase is the

growth in teachers' salaries. This increase during the years of the

World War and immediately thereafter has been one of the most

remarkable phenomena in higher education in the United States.

In small colleges salaries rose from an average of about $1,400 to

an average of $2,000, in medium-sized institutions from $2,500 to

$4,000, and in the large institutions from $5,000 to $8,000 or $10,000.

During the same period the number of students more than doubled.

In 1912 there were 255,673 students enrolled in the colleges and uni-

versities; by 1922 the number had become 550,906. Obviously, how-

ever, doubling the number of students does not fully account for the


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