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II. STATE EXHIBITS.
The California exhibit in the Palace of Education emphasized three points: (1) The extension of public educational activities as shown in motion pictures of certain progressive California communities; (2) school architecture, through models of attractive school buildings from different sections of the State; and (3) the need of
care and education for atypical children. In the California building the emphasis in the education exhibits was on the practical aspect of manual training.
Motion pictures.—The elaborate films presented in the California motion-picture theater in the Palace of Education illustrate the value of this method of presentation of facts for exhibit purposes. Through them many of the activities of the Los Angeles schools, for example, were shown under as nearly natural conditions as possible. The Los Angeles film contained seven separate reels, each descriptive of a different phase of the educational work of the city. Lectures accompanied the pictures.
1 A separate exhibit, devoted to the Berkeley School for the Blind, showed products of the school and illustrated methods of instruction. I class in methods of instruction for the deaf was conducted by Mrs. Trask.
Other films shown in the California exhibit are indicated by the accompanying schedule:
CALIFORNIA EDUCATIONAL EXHIBIT.
PALACE OF EDUCATION.
Program of motion-picture films from 11.00 a. m. to 5.30 p. m. daily.
Through these motion pictures it was possible for the visitor to the exposition to carry away a rather complete and accurate picture of actual school conditions in the State of California with considerably less danger of wrong emphasis than if he had tried visiting a few schools in person.
School architecture.—The model room of the Santa Clara Grammar School showed an overhead-lighted classroom, producing, it was claimed, an absolutely equal distribution of light; there are no cross-lights; desks may be faced in any direction; there are no reflections on the blackboards, and blackboards may be placed on all sides of the room; the pupils' minds are more concentrated; the direct glaring rays of the sun are avoided.
The model of the Newman Grammar School (Newman, Stanislaus County) showed a building of the mission style, with open court in front, while the Patterson Grammar School (Patterson, Stanislaus
County) showed another building of the mission style, all one story. Other schools from Stanislaus County shown by models included the high school, Newman; the Lowell School, Turlock; the Hawthorne School, Turlock; the Riverbank Open-Air School, Riverbank; the Union High School, Oakdale; and the new Ceres High School, Ceres. All these models were constructed by the pupils of the Stanislaus County schools.
The city of Sacramento was represented by the model of an openair kindergarten, a temporary school, and the Sacramento Grammar School.
Fresno was represented by a special type of open-air room, the principal features of which are as follows:
1. The general plan is an adaptation of a standard classroom with classroom conveniences, so that it is readily convertible from an ordinary room into an open-air school.
2. Unilateral lighting, glass windows instead of canvas as a source of light; windows that may be closed in cold weather and thrown completely open in mililer weather, forming an open-air schoolroom. The free flow of air is obtained by attaching shades to the window sash, so that they may serve as awnings. There are no windows facing playgrounds. Cross ventilation is secured by canvas curtains.
3. An abundance of blackboards seen without looking into a source of light. Blackboards adjustable to different sizes of pupils.
4. A projecting roof serving as a shield against the hot summer sun and as a cover for a walk from room to room.'
5. A stove jacketed and provided with a fresh-air intake.
8. The schoolrooms may be joined end to end without the interference of noise from adjacent rooms, an advantage usually impossible in open-air schools.
9. A building serviceable whether as a temporary building, cheaply moved from site to site, or as a permanent structure. Economical yet substantial, costing, in Fresno, $590 each.
One especially attractive model in the California exhibit was that of the Armijo Union High School, Solano County. Other models illustrated the attractive white buildings of southern California-a San Diego public school and grounds, Santa Monica High School, and Monrovia High School. The normal schools were represented by models of the buildings and grounds at Chico and Santa Barbara. The arrangement of the grounds was reproduced with special effectiveness in the Santa Barbara model.
Atypical children. After calling attention to the general statistics of feeble-mindedness in the United States, the exhibit pointed out that there are between 8,000 and 14,000 (estimated) feeble-minded in California ; that 1,100 are in Sonoma State Home—300 idiots, 550 imbeciles, and 250 morons; and that 58 of the children have kindergarten work for 35 minutes every day and 66 children have regular school work.
The city of Oakland “takes care of its atypical children,” according to this exhibit. Statistics of Oakland school children apparently showed that there were 1,250 cases of exceptional children. Of these, 54 per cent were recorded in the psychological clinic; 20, or 1.6 per cent, have been committed to Sonoma State Home; 38 per cent “should be committed at once ”; 985 are morons, border cases, or only backward; and 75 are normal or supernormal. In Oakland there are seven special classes for “border cases," and 100 happy children in these special classes. Other interesting facts