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shown in the Oakland investigation are that there were 44 probationoffice cases in six months; that 00 per cent of atypical children show some physical defect; 75 per cent are children of foreign parents; and 25 per cent have subnormal brothers or sisters. A few of the Oakland cases are given to illustrate the elements in the problem:
A FEW OF OAKLAND'S 1,2 50 DEFECTIVE CHILDUEX.
Epileptic, bright, good, oldest of six children; one paralytic. Hereditary blood disease.
Father drinks, mother feeble-minded: children many and subnormal; utterly dirty and irresponsible.
Model of 1 he Fresno open-air school.
Bad tonsils, poor eyes. A good little business man. Artistic Italian hands.
Tiny, monkeylike moron. Mother dying of syphilis. Ignorant Portuguese.
Drunken, careless parents. Extreme malnutrition. Being saved by manual training.
Colored, subnormal epileptic. Two epileptic truant brothers. Careless, tainted family.
Subnormal mother. Brutal father. Feeble-minded sister.
Father alcoholic, tuberculous. Father's sister epileptic. Child deformed, epileptic.
The Sonoma State Home showed samples of work done at the home—water-color work, embroidery, furniture, chairs, tables, baskets, etc.—to indicate both the possibilities and the limitations of usefulness in atypical children. One motto read: "You will find perfect work in every other exhibit of the exposition. Here is the imperfection of subnormality. Only showing you the rough, awkward work xcill make you understand our difficulties.'''1
Under the heading "What California needs to protect its babies," the following program was laid down:
Psychological examination of all immigrants.
Any one too feeble-minded to support liimself.
Any one venereally diseased.
Any moron, insane, or epileptic, unless sterilized.
Any tuberculous, alcoholic, or drug user, unless cured. Revision of school law.
Expel all feeble-minded.
Form more special classes. Institutions needed.
Colony for moron girls at Sonoma State Home.
Centrally located colony for epileptics.
Centrally located colony for moron hoys.
Institution for feeble-minded In southern California.
In the California hitilding.—A section of the county displays in the California building was devoted to school work. The Sacramento elementary schools were represented by exhibits of practical manual training. One of the features was a completely furnished bedroom, in which "every article displayed was the work of boys and girls of Sacramento elementary schools"—fifth, sixth, and seventh grades. The dress on the young lady in the model room exhibited was made in the Sacramento city high school at a cost of $5. The exhibit also contained a miniature five-room bungalow constructed by children in the elementary grades of the Sacramento schools. Thus the bedroom rugs were made by third-grade pupils; the lamp by fourth-grade pupils: bedding and curtain by fifthgrade girls; the pictures by fifth-grade boys; the baby's bed by sixth-grade girls; furniture by eighth-grade boys;
Several relief maps were exhibited, including those of Sacramento Valley and of the State of California—all the work of pupils. The display of manual-training products emphasized the practical value of the work. A large case contained the various articles of apparel produced in order in the two-year sewing course of the Red Bluff Union High School.
The San Joaquin Valley display showed manual-training products consisting of benches, tables, chairs, davenports, desks, mirrors, picture frames, toys, lamps, desk sets; and the work of the art departments—crayon, pencil, pen-and-ink. and water-color pictures: together with domestic-science products.
Tn planning the Illinois education exhibit six units of the school system were selected to indicate the range of the educational institutions of the State. One example of each unit was shown in the
form of a model, and the location of the other institutions of the State was indicated by maps. The units and the institutions selected as representative were as follows: One-room country school (crossroads school. Macon County); consolidated school (Rollo); township high school (La Salle-Peru); normal school (Illinois Normal University); college (Knox College); university (University of Illinois).
The one-room rural schoolhouse, shown complete in a large model, illustrated the high standard of excellence now established for rural schools in Illinois. Nearly 2,000 such schools in the State have already attained this standard. The two models of the consolidated elementary school and the township high school afforded actual examples of the methods whereby country boys and girls have the same educational opportunities as city pupils, retaining the advantage of rural environment. The Knox College model illustrates a type of institution in which Illinois is especially rich, having 17 such colleges enrolling (5,859 students. The central model of the exhibit shows the State university, enrolling over 0,000 students, and ministering to various types of higher education—professional, commercial, and industrial. All the models were faithful reproductions of actual schools, chosen as typical units. Hundreds of other schools were shown in photographs which covered the walls and filled the display cases.
"Rural school consolidation is the theme of the education exhibit of the State of Indiana." Through contrasting models, photographs, and stereomotograph views, the point was reiterated that consolidation of country schools results in better schools and better teachers, reduced cost of maintenance, improved attendance, and a finer community life.
The following statistics were presented to show the progress of consolidation in Indiana between 1910 and 1914:
Number of consolidated elementary schools 100 290
Number of consolidated high schools 31 36
Number of consolidated combined elementary and high
schools 235 339
Total number of consolidated schools 426 665
Number of pupils transported to consolidated schools 10, 051 26, 403
Total cost of transportation $155,390 $491, 265
Average cost of transportation per pupil transported $19.66 $19.63
Number of pupils enrolled in consolidated schools 29,215 73,404
Percentage of the total number of pupils enrolled in all
rural schools in consolidated schools per cent— 24J 35ft