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Percentage of the enrollment in consolidated schools in the high school_----

--per cent. Number of schools (not consolidated) abandoned this

year Number of schools (not consolidated) abandoned during

the past five years-Total number of abandoned school districts in the State

at the present time--Total number of district schools at the present time--Average number of pupils per teacher in consolidated

Average number of pupils per teacher in all other rural

Average tuition cost per pupil in consolidated schools.-
Average tuition cost per pupil in all other rural schools_-
Average total cost per pupil in consolidated schools.-
Average total cost in all other rural schools ---
Average daily wage of teachers in consolidated schools
Average daily wage of teachers in all other rural schools.


22 $18.45 $18.00 $25. 61 $22. 71 $3. 37 $2.76


Agricultural education as the basis of State prosperity was the keynote of the Iowa exhibit. Various phases of agricultural education were emphasized in turn and illustrated by photographs and legends. Preparing teachers of agriculture was the first topic treated; this was followed by horticulture and forestry, agricultural journalism, dairying, agricultural extension, farm management, farm crops, animal husbandry, and soils.

With regard to agricultural journalism, it was pointed out that the purposes of the work were

(1) To apply to agriculture the news style of writing—unexcelled in clearness, conciseness, interest.

(2) To make of trained agriculturists contributors to the press, thereby multiplying their usefulness.

(3) To give some technical training to students who plan to enter agricultural journalism.

(4) To aid in making country newspapers more prosperous and more efficient agencies in the upbuilding of rural life.

It was pointed out that a country newspaper men's short course held at the college in 1911

(1) Brought an attendance of 110 country publishers for three days.
(2) Gave instruction in agricultural and rural life subjects.
(3) Showed how country newspapers may serve the rural field better.
(4) Suggested ways of increasing business among farmers.
(5) Demonstrated methods for getting better printing results.
(6) Conducted a newspaper make-up and printing contest.
(7) Presented a country newspaper and printing exhibit.

Under dairying it was shown that 143 experienced men, representing 13 States, attended the short course in dairy manufactures in 1914, and 80+ students in the regular course studied dairy subjects at Iowa State College during the past year.

In agricultural extension, a map was presented to show that there were 955 farmers' institutes and meetings during the year 1914, and 11 farm investigation tours. The Iowa boys and girls' club membership for 1914 totaled 18,000, in corn clubs, garden and canning clubs, domestic science clubs, baby pork clubs, and manual training clubs. Copies of the numerous bulletins of the extension division of the State college were displayed.


Vocational training was the special phase of education presented by the Massachusetts exhibit. By charts, illuminated views, and

models in action, the exTHE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS. hibit sought to show the STATE-AIDED VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS.

kind and number of voca

tional schools in MassaSTATE ADMINISTRATION OF chusetts and the methods VOCATIONAL EDUCATION involved. The type of

schools included:

1. (a) Agricultural, inBOARD OF EDUCATION

dustrial, and home-making (Nine Members Appointed by Coveror)

schools for boys and girls COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION

from 14 to 25 years of age. ( Elected by Board)

(6) Evening trade schools

for men and women; also DEPUTY COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION (In Charge of Vocational Education )

home - making schools for

women over 17 years of age. Agents

II. Textile schools at Home making

Training of

Lowell, New Bedford, and

Fall River for the technical DUTIES

training of students in tex

tile manufacturing. Supervision of State Expenditures for Maintenance

III. Nautical school In State-Aided Vocational Schools

maintained by the State in Definition of Standards of Instruction

the interest of the merchant Approval of Courses, Teacher, Pupils. Advisory Committee marine service. Advise and Assist in the Establishment of New

An illuminated map, Schools of Vocational Types

with an electric flashing

device, showed the number of different types of vocational schools in the State. The arrangement whereby the shop releases workers for work in the shop and






whereby workers have opportunities for study at night was illustrated by another electric device. Similarly the home-project work in agriculture was visualized. Electric flashing from point to point along the section of country reproduced indicated how the agriculture teacher and State agent went from place to place to inspect the work and give instruction.

An especially valuable series of charts showed the history of vocational schools in Massachusetts. After pointing out that “overwhelming public sentiment shows the need of vocational schools in this country," and that “great national, educational, civic, industrial, and commercial organizations, representing more than 12,000,000 persons are on record as believing that vocational education is absolutely necessary for the future welfare of the nation,” the charts traced the origin of interest in vocational education in Massachusetts as follows:


I. Conserration of the youth of the Commonwealth.-It is estimated that in 1910 there were, in Massachusetts, 167,000 youths 14 to 17 years of age; 94,000 (56 per cent) were in school ; 73,000 (44 per cent) were out of school. Of those out of school, 40,000 (54 per cent) were regularly employed ; 33,000 (46 per cent) were semi-idle or unemployed.

II. Conservation of the industrial supremacy of the Commonwealth.—Changing economic conditions due to (1) Scarcity of skilled workers; (2) inadequacy of the apprentice system; (3) application of science to industry ; (4) foreign and inter-State competition; (5) movement of population from country to city; (6) immigration of increasing numbers of unskilled workers.

The beginnings of industrial education in Massachusetts are traced from the law of 1872, which authorized the establishment and maintenance of industrial schools by any city or town; through the establishment of textile schools at Lowell (1897), New Bedford (1898), and Fall River (1908); to the commission on industrial and technical education appointed by Gov. William L. Douglas in 1905. Special attention was given in a number of charts to the work of this commission, which was outlined as follows:



I. Membership.Representatives of (1) manufacturing, (2) agricultural, (3) educational, (4) labor interests.

II. Scope of inrestigation.-(1) Needs for education in different grades of skill and responsibility in the various industries of the Commonwealth ; (2) how far these needs are met in existing institutions; (3) what new forms of educational effort may be advisable.


I. Conclusions (in part).-" The productive industries of the State, including agriculture, manufactures, and building, depend mainly upon chance for re(ruiting their service.

" The industries of Massachusetts need, in addition to the general intelligence furnished by the public-school system, a broader training in the principles of the trades.

“ Whatever may be the cost of such training, the failure to provide it would in the end be more costly.”

II. Recommendations.Legislation for a permanent commission for industrial education. Another chart summed up the work of this commission, which

served from 1906 to 1909, THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS. continuing its investigations STATE-AIDED VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS.

into industrial training and

school needs; advising and CONDITIONS OF

aiding in the introduction STATE APPROVAL of industrial education in

independent schools; inter

esting communities and citiAPPROVED

zens of the Commonwealth LOCAL OR DISTRICT INDEPENDENT

in industrial education, and VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS

establishing a number of in

dustrial schools. Following Must be those Approved by the

the reorganization of the

State board of education in State Board of Education as to

1909, provision was made Organization

for a deputy commissioner Control

in charge of vocational edu

cation, and the State board Location

of education was-
Courses of Study

authorized and directed to inves

tigate and to aid in the introducQualifications of Teachers

tion of industrial, agricultural, Methods of Instruction

and household arts education; to Conditions of Admission

initiate and superintend the esEmployment of Pupils

tablishment and maintenance of

schools for the aforesaid forms Expenditures of Money

of education; and to supervise

and approve such schools. Other charts defined the forms of vocational education as constituted by the laws of Massachusetts; listed the types of vocational schools established under Massachusetts law-full-time day schools, full-time cooperative day schools, part-time schools, evening schools, continuation schools; stated the purpose of rocational schools in Mas

sachusetts; and showed the administration of vocational education, the conditions of State approval, and progress in the establishment of State-aided vocational schools in Massachusetts.

The purpose of the vocational schools was summarized as follows:


I. Full-time day school. To help boys and girls 14 to 25 who can remain in school and receive a vocational training.

II. Part-time day school.—To help boys and girls 14 to 25 who must earn money and can give only a part of their time to getting a better education.

III. Continuation school.—To help boys and girls of 14 to 16 who must spend all their time in earning money and whose employers are willing to give them some time for study.

IV. Erening school.—(4) Trade extension to help boys and girls and men and women over 17 who desire to become more skilled in the industry in which they are engaged.

(B) Homemaking. To help girls and women over 17, employed during the day, who desire to receive training in the household and other practical arts.

The following table shows the number and distribution of Stateaided vocational schools in Massachusetts:

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One chart was devoted to the system of advisory committees for vocational schools in Massachusetts. Each school has an advisory committee made up of men and women experienced in the occupations trained for in the schools, members being selected by representatives of the industries. The function of the advisory committee is to consult with and advise local school officials in the management and supervision of schools”; it is not a board of control. The following shows the advisory committees serving in 1913–14:

Adrisory committees.

Kinds of school.



| Men on


Women on commit


Agricultural school...
Day and evening vocational school.


89 162

20 78

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