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The exhibit contained numerous views illustrating work in the vocational schools, samples of the product of the vocational schools, and also photographs suggesting educational developments in Massachusetts in other types of schools than those emphasized in the exhibit. The exhibit of the three textile schools—Bradford Durfee Textile School, Lowell Textile School, and New Bedford Textile School—showed the following types of courses: Carding and spinning cotton, preparation of colored warps through dye house, designing and manufacturing of ginghams, plaids, etc., and elementary drawing and designing; woolen and worsted designing and manufacturing, textile engineering, chemistry, and dyeing; designing and weaving fine cotton goods, seamless hosiery knitting, latch-needle underwear knitting, and machine-shop work.
MISSOURI. The Missouri exhibit showed the State's decentralized school system and pointed out some of the advantages and possibilities of this system. The Missouri plan, as illustrated by an electric device, provides an arrangement whereby any pupil in the State can pass from grade to grade, or from one school to any other school of corresponding grade, without taking examinations other than such as are given him by his class teacher as a part of his regular school work. Any pupil completing the elementary school course and receiving the common school diploma is admitted on the presentation of this diploma to any high school in the State. Any pupil who has completed the work in an approved high school receives credit for it toward admission to any of the five State normal schools or to the State university or to any college in the Missouri College Union. Inspection, rather than examination, is the method used by the State in maintaining standards.
Special emphasis was given in the exhibit to the remarkable growth of high schools, which, it is claimed, has been facilitated by the Missouri plan of State inspection and approval. A spot-light map showed a growth in high schools in the State of more than 800 per cent in the past 10 years.
Special attention was given to the Missouri College Union and to Missouri's “junior colleges.” There were 11 of these junior colleges in 1914, with 150 teachers, annual salaries of $96,429, and 904 students, 120 students completing the college course, 15,790 volumes in libraries, $58,378 worth of equipment for each, and $1,395,000 in grounds and buildings. Each of these junior colleges maintains a standard three-year college course.
The enrollment in Missouri schools was shown to be as follows:
7, 373 50, 826
Students of college rank in standard schools_
343, 364 705, 971
To show “centralization of supervision, with decentralization of service," was the assigned aim of the New York exhibit. A relief map of the State, 27 by 36 feet in area, was studded with electric
Photü by courtesy of Howell's Microcosm, Washington, D. C. The New York State exhibit, showing the electric-flashing relief map and the model of the State education building. Different colored lights showed the location of the various schools and
libraries in the State. lights of various colors, each representing some type of educational institution. Thirteen colors were used; 11,612 white lights for the elementary schools, 948 red lights for the high schools and academies, 31 ruby lights for the colleges, technical institutes, and universities, 34 orange lights for the professional schools, 136 green lights for the nurses' training schools, 11 violet rays for the fine arts schools, 10 yellow lights for the normal schools, 7 pink lights for the Indian schools, 136 canary-colored lamps for the training schools, 10 purple lights for the schools for defectives, 21 amber-colored
Photo by courtesy of Howell's Microcosm, Washington, D. C.
A nearer view of the New York State Education Building.
lights for the publicly maintained business schools, and 65 frosted lights for the vocational schools. In addition, there were 513 blue lights by which the location of the public libraries of the State was identified.
A large architectural model (7 by 16 feet) of the State Education Building at Albany, from which the public educational work of the entire State is directed, served to give some impression of the magnitude of the work of caring for education in a State which numbers more than 1,500,000 pupils of school age.
Eight stereomotographs showed types of educational buildings located in various sections of the State, ranging from the great universities to the little schoolhouse of the Adirondacks, and the activities of the State education department in administration and general supervision of the work of the State. Motion pictures also showed the work of various social and educational agencies, including the schools.
Standardization of rural schools and adaptation of the school to the needs of the community were the main topics of the Oregon
The Oregon education exhibit. The model in the foreground illustrates a “standard” school.
t'nusually attractive colored pictures showed typical activities of Oregon rural schools.
exhibit. The central display was a model of a Polk County rural school of the standard type. Grouped about this were unusually attractive colored views illustrating rural-school work.
The following statement was displayed to indicate the requirements of the Oregon standard school:
STATE OF OREGOX STANDARD SCHOOL.
Flag.--Must be flying, weather permitting.
placel; suitable blackboards; window shades in good condition. II eating and ventilating.–Jacketed stove properly situated, minimum require
ment; window boards or some other approved method of ventilating. Rooms.-Attractive at all times. Standard picture.—One new one, unless three are already in the room, framed. Grounds.—To be clean, free from paper, etc. At least three features of play
apparatus. Walks, if necessary. Sanitation.—Pure drinking water, either drinking fountain or covered tank, and
individual drinking cups; individual, family, or paper towels. Outbuildings.-At least two good ones, to be sanitary at all times and free from
marks. Teacher.—Must maintain good order at all times; supervise the playground;
have her work well prepared; follow State course of study; take at least one educational journal; have program posted in room; keep register in good
condition; be neat in attire. Libraryj.—Good selection of books from State list. Case for the books. Books
kept upright, in good condition, and recorded according to rules specified by
Oregon State library and required by law. Attendance:-Average 92 per cent for year and not to exceed 2 per cent in tardi
ness for year. Length of term.-Not less than eight months of school each year.
A card containing these 13 requirements is placed on the front wall of each rural school. On his regular visits the county superintendent inspects the school and affixes a gold star opposite each point to which the school is entitled. When all the requirements are earned, a suitable pennant is awarded to the school. The plan originated in Polk County in 1910.
Two other important phases of the work of rural schools of Oregon, as shown in the exhibit, were the rural playgrounds and the boys and girls' industrial clubs.1
PENNSYLVANIA. The Pennsylvania Department of Health exhibit gave considerable space to school health matters, with special reference to the rural school. Prominently displayed over the center of the booth was the motto: “The varied industries on which we depend for our comforts, the wealth which cnables us to enjoy them, and the arts of civilization which adorn and dirersify our lives, are but the fruitage of the tree whose root is health.” The practical applications of the principles of hygiene to school life, as shown in the exhibit, are carried out in two directions—first, personal hygiene as directed
1 For details see Bulletin, 1916, No. 2.