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by school medical inspection; second, environmental hygiene as directed to the building and equipment under which school life is maintained. It is pointed out that in Pennsylvania “ the president of each school board is required to certify under oath that the health and sanitary requirements of the Pennsylvania school code have been complied with in order to secure a proportion of the State appropriation."

A relief model of the State, 303 by 62 inches, showed the location of the rural schools, and a legend indicated that 400,000 children in rural schools are examined annually by the State Department of Health in Pennsylvania. At the same time a sanitary inspection is made of the buildings as to heating, lighting, ventilating, sanitary

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Device used by Pennsylvania Department of Health to show the amount of physical defect in an average

class in school. There are 7 normal children in this group of 25; 8 with defective teeth; 7 with defective vision; 2 with defective hearing; 7 with enlarged tonsils; and several with other defects, including 1 suffering from malnutrition.

conveniences, and water supply. Various photographs and transparencies showed the arrival of the medical inspector at a rural school; tests of vision; taking records of pupil; examining eyes for conjunctivitis, trachoma, etc.; free school dental clinic; testing hearing; nurse taking physical measurements; types of privies at rural schools; penny school lunches, 3-cent school lunches, and free school lunches for undernourished children, etc. One group of photographs showed how the blackboard looks to moderately nearsighted children; how it looks to average near-sighted children; how it looks to extremely near-sighted children; and how it looks to children of normal vision. I set of mounted specimens showed the various stages in the development of the teeth; and a group of form models of the head and neck illustrated normal condition of the air passages, air passages obstructed by adenoids, air passages obstructed by enlarged tonsils, and diphtheritic membrane concealed on the tonsils and posterior nares.

School buildings, old and new, were shown by photographs and models. The old octagonal type of schoolhouse; an old log schoolhouse; an old rectangular building; and many other buildings, interior and exterior, were shown. A model, 7 by 11 feet, pictured an “ideal arrangement" for a school building, with ample space for

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A popular plan for Pennsylvania rural schools. One of several furnished by the Pennsylvania State

Board of Education for display in the exhibit of the Pennsylvania State Department of Health.

playgrounds; and a section of the schoolhouse, treated separately, showed proper lighting and seating. Three types of one-room schools were shown by drawings.

Four life-size pupils seated at desks illustrated good and bad seating. Another model showed graphically the proportion of defective children in an average schoolroom.

The protective value of vaccination was shown by a number of effective transparencies showing “smallpox in an unvaccinated, and varioloid in a young girl vaccinated 14 years before;" “the unvaccinated sister;" and the various stages of smallpox eruption.

Some of the striking legends displayed in this exhibit were: 72.7 per cent of all school children have some form of physical defect which influences their mental and physical progress.

24.2 per cent of all school children have defects of vision which retard their mental progress.

3.2 per cent of all school children have some degree of defective hearing.

51.7 per cent of all school children have defects of the teeth, which interfere more or less with speech and proper mastication and digestion of food.

35 per cent of all school children are affected with some occlusion oi the upper air passages, which favors mouth breathing and its consequent ills, such as frequent attacks of tonsilitis, nasal and pharyngeal catarrh, and lung affections.

Open-air sports, gymnastics, and systematic recreation are newly organized features of education.

Open-air schools have proved their value in educational as well as physical development of children who would under ordinary conditions have been inefficient in both respects.

The evolution of the modern consolidated rural school and the passing of the old type of isolated buildings and crude equipment marks an epoch in school hygiene.

Improper and under feeding of school children is a prolific source of retardation and physical deficiency.


A large slanting relief map of the State and a booth built in the form of a beehive were the chief external features of the Utah education exhibit. The relief map, showing in detail the mountains, valleys, and rivers, indicated the conscious conviction in Utah that there must be a close connection between the physical resources of the State and its education. This was the emphasis of the exhibit. It was expressed in several legends, the most striking of which were as follows:

Utah uses 86 per cent of the State's tax revenue for educational purposes.

In the past 12 years the annual expenditures for school purposes in Utah have increased from $1,000,000 to $4,500,000.

Utah is making a determined effort to adapt the work of the public schools to the actual needs of the people.

To conserve and develop her natural resources Utah needs the trained mind and the trained hand. A function of the schools is to supply this need.

It was pointed out that the State had been settled with the town as a unit, resulting in (1) close social communication; (2) cooperative industry; (3) need for graded-school houses only; (4) establishment of State-wide consolidated school districts.

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A corner of the Utah exhibit, showing an effective display of school products.

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