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Social centers.—By promoting the use of public buildings, by the entire public,
for educational, cultural and recreational purposes. Health instruction.—By teaching in easily understood terms the dangers and
the methods of avoiding preventable human disease, needless suffering, and
premature death. Visual instruction.—By collecting and circulating educational lantern slides,
moving pictures and written lectures to schools, societies, clubs, and other
organizations. District organizations.—By providing the connecting link between the "man
who knows" and "the man or woman who needs to know."
Continuation schools.—" AVisconsin requires all boj's and girls working at gainful occupations and not yet 16 years of age to attend continuation schools one-half day, or four hours, each week," asserted the first of a number of charts illustrating the work of the continuation schools of Milwaukee. The aims of the continuation schools shown in the photographs of the exhibit were declared to be: To save the investment the community has already made in the education of these boys and girls in the elementary schools; to furnish those attending with practical experience varied in character which will be of service in the problem immediately before them—that of selecting an occupation at which they may earn a substantial wage and in many instances utilize special talents; to inculcate standards of moral, civic, and social conduct.
The plan is described on the charts as follows:
All of these boys and girls are required to come to a centrally located school, where, in the down-town section,1 space has been rented in well-lighted structures built for manufacturing purposes. The space rented has been divided into suitable shops, laboratories, drawing rooms, and classrooms. The teachers and equipment, being grouped in one place, can be used to greatest advantage, and the large number of pupils coming to the place enables the schools to receive pupils on the days they can best be spared by the employer, and make such shifts in the assignments to particular days as result in the maximum of accommodation without sacrificing the character of the work to be done. We have no itinerant teachers and no classes conducted in the shops, factories, or stores. All pupils come the full time required in one attendance. No Saturday work has ever been delinquent. Many apprentices come to the school on their own time in excess of the compulsory period, for which tliey are paid by their employers. We have in attendance over 300 actually indentured, and expect that this number will largely increase in the near future. We are now ready to meet adequately the needs for training which will supplement the shop or factory experience in all lines to which boys and girls are admitted through apprenticeship.
In our steam, gas-engine, automobile, and. electrical courses, as well as in much of our other work, we are pursuing the method of correspondence schools, supplemented by lectures, laboratory work, and quizzes, which bring the pupils and instructors face to face. In this way we are obtaining much work done outside of school and are enabled to put the attendance on a two-night-a-week basis.
1 Referring to Milwaukee.
Experience seems to show conclusively that young people under 1G years of age ought not to l>e taught in night schools. It appears quite as certain that adults should not be expected to be away from home and in school more than two nights each week in order to obtain the best results. Three hundred and fifty men are at present attending the engineering classes. They have been in attendance seven months, and the classes show no signs of diminishing numbers. The teachers devote much of their day time to the correction of the written work presented by night students. The men in these courses feel that they are getting well-planned, sequential work, and that with the assistance given them they may reasonably expect to obtain credentials that will have a value to them in securing promotion. Many men have already been assisted to better positions.
In addition to the engineering classes we offer to adults in evening classes the following: Architectural drawing, mechanical drafting, estimating for contractors, shop mathematics, pharmacy, chemistry, stenography and typewriting, business English, bookkeeping and accounting, printing, salesmanship. Spanish, sewing—plain and dressmaking, cooking—elementary and advanced, English for foreigners.
Many other lines of work are being developed as fast as the needs of the various groups in the community can be ascertained.
The plan for State aid for industrial education was also set forth by the charts. It was shown that the State board of industrial education consists of six members appointed by the governor and three ex officio members, as follows: The State superintendent of education, the tleans of the extension department and of the college of engineering of the University of Wisconsin. It is the function of this board to foster the adequate extension of its special educational work within all cities that are aided by the State, and to pass upon the adequacy and quality of the work being done in the various localities for the purpose of administering the State aid. At the present time the State authorities require all communities to carry on the following form of activities simultaneously in order to receive full State aid:
1. A school for permit workers under 10 years of age.
2. A school for indentured apprentices.
3. An all-day industrial school fur temporarily unemployed permit workers.
4. Schools for adults—particularly evening schools.
After the passage of the law of 1911, 20 cities inaugurated 40 schools and during the year 1014-15, including the State aid, raised $341,000 for their support. The 1015 legislature increased the number of schools which might be aided to 70.
Rural school libraries.—Rural school library development also received attention in the Wisconsin exhibit. A typical present-day library for a rural school was exhibited. Figures on the chart indicated that there are at present 1.000,000 volumes in school libraries in Wisconsin. In 1805 there were 114,000 volumes: in 1903, 000,000; and in 1013 there were 1,327,584.
The city of Oshkosh was represented by a map showing the public library survey. Transparencies and booklets told of the Brown County Woman's Building, a community center for the women of the county, said to be the only building of its kind in the United States.
Occupying 10,000 square feet of space in the northern corner of the Palace of Education, the exhibit of the Philippine Bureau of Education was one of the most impressive in the exposition. The emphasis that has been placed in the Philippines on the definite connection between education and the industrial needs of a people was evident, as also the idea of centralized school management. Beautiful and practical work in native woods—handsome mahogany furniture, baskets of Filipino weave, hats of the native buntal straw—all were the work of the schools. At one end of the exhibit the work of transforming the native products into useful articles was shown in actual operation.
Just what the Filipino education problem has been and how it has been solved was made clear by a number of charts. First of all, it was pointed out that the United States pays nothing toward Philippine education. What has been done has been entirely through Philippine funds by the Filipinos themselves. Of the $3,374,750 total annual revenues for schools, $2,256,800 is appropriated by the Philippine insular legislature; $1,027,100 is from municipal appro-, priations; and $90,850 is given by provincial boards. The cost of education is $7.25 per pupil and 47 cents per capita of population.
Maps showed the distribution of public schools—there are 3.033 "barrio" or small village schools; 1,202 central schools; 59 agricultural schools; or a total of 4,235 schools, with 449,836 pupils, and a total annual enrollment of approximately 610,000.
The emphasis throughout the exhibit, however, was upon the specially adapted course of study that has been worked out for the islands, with early introduction of housekeeping and household arts, trades, and farming. An outline of the public-school system is given on page 59.
The building of standard schoolhouses of reinforced concrete has received particular encouragement from the insular government and a large model of a standard school was exhibited. Ample play space is a prerequisite to the construction of these buildings. The insular government gives $2 for every $1 raised locally for the erection of standard schools. There are now 409 " standard schools," 290 other permanent buildings, and 798 semipermanent buildings.
1 For a detailed description of the course of stud}- see Bulletin, 1910, No. 2.
Building is on the unit plan, which allows for growth in attendance. A unit room is 22 feet 10^ inches by 29 feet 6 inches, and the cost of a unit room is $1,400.
An interesting development is in teacher training. The policy has been to develop native teachers and assign the American teachers to higher, intermediate, secondary, and supervisory work. There are now 8,855 Filipino teachers and only 612 Americans, according to a chart shown at the exhibit. There are 7,452 teachers who receive