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yearly five weeks of specialized industrial training in 34 vocational normal institutes.
To indicate further the extent of the system, 417,150 Filipino pupils receive practical industrial training daily from 7,215 regular teachers and 699 special industrial instructors. Industrial education is supervised by 309 supervising teachers, 89 special industrial supervisors, 37 division superintendents, and 5 insular industrial inspectors.
The exhibit also showed by charts and photographs the use of organized play and athletics and the force these have become in the educational work in the islands.
By way of summary one of the charts stated that:
In evolving a school system the Government profited by Spanish experience; studied the desires and needs of the Filipino people; made economic and educational surveys; consulted foreign countries having similar conditions; followed the best educational tradition; and made first-hand experiments in order to evolve a school system adapted to the needs of the Filipino people.
III. CITY EXHIBITS.
NEW YORK CITY.
Models, photographs, and an unusually illuminating set of charts, all in the New York City building, set forth New York City's provision for education.
The models included one of a typical playground, of which there are 94 in all; one of a recreation pier, of which there are 8; and a typical school farm in the city. The school farm was that at Corlears Hook, with an area of three-fourths of an acre, divided into 400 separate plats, to which 800 children were assigned. In all there were 6 such school farms, with a total acreage of 7 acres. Two crops were grown and harvested each year, and 6,300 children were assigned to individual plats 4 by 8 feet. In these gardens 25,000 school children with their teachers pursue nature study, and material for classroom use is furnished by the gardens to various schools throughout the city. This work has aroused widespread interest—in 1914 the work was studied and investigated by representatives from 3 foreign countries, 32 States, and 100 cities.
The photographs shown included exterior and interior views of the College of the City of New York and of Hunter College; views of the high schools; activities of pupils in the grade schools, evening schools, vocational schools, and prevocational classes.
The charts displayed gave a concise statement of New York's school system (1914). In the elementary schools, according to these charts, the enrollment was 804,237; the average attendance was 634,515; and the number of teachers was 18,000. The elementary schools include 17 open-air classes for children with pulmonary tuberculosis; 46 classes for anemic children; 102 open-air classes for normal children; 189 ungraded classes for mental defectives, with 2,972 pupils; 16 classes for blind children, with 194 pupils; 31 classes for the deaf, with 284 pupils; and 41 classes for crippled children, with 766 pupils enrolled. High-school opportunities were set forth in a separate series of charts, part of which described in some detail the proposed cooperative high-school courses.
Of special interest were charts descriptive of the work of the prevocational and vocational schools. Five elementary schools are especially equipped with shops for prevocational instruction to pupils of the seventh and eighth grades.
Shop activities are made the centers about which the academic work in arithmetic, English, history, and geography is grouped and developed. It is proposed to give pupils an opportunity to find their abilities by providing varied industrial work—a real advance in vocational guidance. For boys, electric wiring and installation, machine-shop practice, printing, plumbing, sheetmetal work, and trade drafting are offered; for girls, novelty work, dressmaking, millinery, power-machine operating, home making, free-hand drawing. In the morning the pupils carry on regular work in academic subjects, so that at any time they may be transferred from the prevocational classes to the regular classes of the school without suffering any loss of time. In the afternoon they carry on the work of these special courses. All pupils electing prevocational work spend nine weeks in each of the special courses. The six courses are covered in about a year and a half. It is the plan, at the expiration of this period, to have each pupil select, under the supervision of the teacher, one of the lines of special work as his vocation, to continue it through the school and later in one of the regular vocational schools.
Under “ Wider use of school plant," the following summary was presented :
(1) EVENING SCHOOLS.
(5) PU'BLIC LECTURES. Lecture centers_
676 Lectures delivered
5, 405 Attendance
1, 154, 066 Motion pictures showing the work of the school boys’ athletic league, school farm work, and many interesting features of educational work were shown in the auditorium of the New York City building
The Gary (Ind.) exhibit was devoted to an explanation of the school arrangement that has made Gary known everywhere alike for efficient utilization of school plant and complete education of children in accordance with modern demands. In the center of the booth was a large model of the Froebel school showing cut sections, and prominently displayed were charts and legends portraying the double system whereby all kinds of activities are made possible in connection
A Work-Study-and-Play Public
School System for Adults
Two groups of Evening School Students are in each Building.
A Work-Study-and-Play School Plant is well adapted for adult use
2,472 Average Nightly Attendance
1,391 Total Student Hours, actual class work 147,577 Cost per Student Hour
Features of the Gary plan.
with the school without additional building space. Every part of the school plant is in use practically all the time. The following brief description of the Froebel school and its environment is taken from charts shown at the exhibit:
1. The school building accommodates 2,000 pupils in the kindergarten, common school, and high school. The building contains 2 kindergarten rooms. 24 classrooms, 5 science laboratories, 3 music and expression studios, 8 workshops, an auditorium seating 900, 2 gymnasiums, and 2 swimming pools.
2. The public parking in front of the school building is owned and controlled jointly by the park board and the school. The botany department of the school supervises the care of the lawns, trees, and shrubbery of the park.
3. The two school gardens contain about 1 acre each.
4. The playground is owned and controlled by the school, but is open every day and evening, including Saturday and Sunday.
5. The zoology department has a number of animal houses in the playground.
6. The school program permits the churches, libraries, Y. M. C. A., and settlement houses, upon the request of the parents, to secure groups of children regularly every hour of the school day for work that they can do better than can the school.
It was pointed out that, while Gary gives day and evening industrial training, the city has no separate industrial school. “Industrial work is a part of the regular day-school program in all schools and in all grades.” Grades, high school, and evening schools are all in the same building for the district served. “Vocational guidance is the first consideration, and vocational training only secondary.”
The following is an outline of the work as furnished by charts in the exhibt: Time given to vocational work:
During first and second years 1 hour daily to handwork and drawing. Third, fourth, and fifth years, 1 hour daily in shopwork, drawing, and ele
mentary science. Sixth, seventh, and eighth grades, 130 hours yearly to specialized shopwork. Ninth and tenth grades, 200 hours yearly in specialized shopwork. Sixth to eighth grades, 130 hours yearly to elementary science. All grades from third to tenth have some form of mechanical drawing
daily. The teachers:
Licensed teachers for manual training, sewing, cooking, and drawing.
Mechanics from the trades for specialized shopwork.
Manual training, sewing, cooking, drawing, from 15 to 20.
Machine shop practice. Painting
Applied electricity. Sheet-metal work.
Shoe repairing. Pattern making.
Stenography and bookkeeping. Foundry practice.
Specialized mechanical drawing. Forging.
NOTE.—The above covers shopwork of two schools.
On manufacturing basis.
tional director. Construction and maintenance of school equipment constitute the majority
of shop problems. Shops practically self-supporting. Students marked on basis of rate per hour in cents, instead of on a hundred
per cent basis.