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Statistics, 1919-14—Industrial work only:
Value of equipment $23,000
Supplies for year $13,500
Salaries paid Instructors 15. 345
Value of productive output $27,875
Cost for specialized shopwork $970
Student-hours of instruction 71.514
Cost per student-hour $0,014
Industrial work in the eceniny schools:
All shops available two nights a week for adults.
Night students encouraged to take mechanical drawing, science, and mathe-
daywork. Seventy-five per cent of enrollment are men from industries. Cost of combined night school work 10 per cent of cost of day school.
Average attendance, industrial evening schools:
Mechanical tlnrwing (three centers) 40
Shop and advanced mathematics (three centers) 60
Industrial science (two centers) 25
Applied electricity (two centers) 20
Automobile theory and repair for three months only (one center) 25
Printing (two centers) 20
Plumbing (two centers) 15
Machine shop (one center) 10
Pattern making (one center) Irregular.
Foundry practice (one center) Irregular.
Forging (one center) Irregular.
Sheet-metal work (one center) Irregular.
Sewing, cooking, millinery, arts and crafts, and free-hand drawing have large attendance, but more from social and recreation than industrial motive (five centers).
Cost of industrial training, night school:
Student-hour cost ranges from 8 to 20 cents; not allowed to exceed 2d cents.
Cost of plant:
Building $300. 000
Equipment 25. 000
Site and playground .75.000
Per capita cost of plant 150
Per capita cost:
Operation . 30
Maintenance . 00
Total 3. 00
Average number of students per teacher 35
The following is a summary of the "claims'' made for the Gary plan:
"What ice claim for the Clary plan in industrial education:
Economical, efficient, vocational guidance for all.
Industrial training when needed, and by whom needed.
Makes possible increased facilities for grades, high schools, and continuation schools.
Keeps children in school longer. Gratifies the child's desire which every 12 to 14 year old boy has for a " real job."
Directs more students into the technical institutes, and sends others into life with a better understanding of industrial work.
Develops a spirit of democracy on part of high-school students.
Experience has proved that graduates stand in front rank on collegeentrance requirements.
That the whole plant can he used all the time for all the people.
IV. FOREIGN NATIONS.1
The education exhibit of Argentina in the Palace of Education consisted of numbers of attractive screens containing views of primary, secondary, and technical schools, and higher institutions of learning, together with legends and charts setting forth the present development of public instruction in Argentina, with special reference to outdoor activities for school hygiene. Charts called attention to the fact that "Primary instruction is compulsory and free in Argentina for all children from G to 14 years of age." Private schools are under the supervision of the national education board. All public schools are secular. The Federal Government of Argentina spends for its normal, secondary, and special schools $10,528,980, or $1.55 per capita.
One chart illustrated the training of teachers, through regular normal schools, normal schools for physical training, normal schools for secondary education, pedagogical departments of universities, and normal schools for the teaching of modern languages. The latter type of school is described as an institution " distinctly Argentinian," where "all languages are taught in their own tongue for the sake of practice." Entrance requirements are the same as for the regular normal schools, and the graduates teach modern languages in secondary schools. The growth in provision for teacher training during the past 20 years was shown, especially with reference to primary teachers: In 1894 there were 35 schools, 1,310 students, and a total expenditure of $81(1,500; in 1914 there were 70 schools, 8,974 students, and a total expenditure of $4,270,000.
The following summary is from a special pamphlet prepared by the department of education of Argentina for distribution at the exposition:
Primary education in Argentina owes its present state of development to Domingo F. Sarmiento, who was a personal friend and student of Horace Mann.
Primary education in the Provinces (States) of Argentina is tlie concern of State authorities, who work in harmony with the educational bodies of its cities, towns, and villages. The exception to this consists in the control by the national hoard of education of the primary schools of the Federal city of Buenos Aires and such other exceptions as will be mentioned further on.
1 Other nations gave attention to education In the special buildings housing their official exhibits. Thus the I'YencU pavilion contained an exhibit of colored charts showing tiie growth of the schools of Paris since 1ST!).