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One of the more recent and far-reaching developments of this Federal control is the fact that in some of the Provinces primary schools are established and subsidized by the Federal Government where local economic conditions are not able to cope with the need for popular education.
Argentina maintains therefore in some of the Provinces two systems of primary schools, the regular State-controlled and the Federal-controlled primary schools.
In 1894 there were 3,000 primary schools, public and private, which increased during the next 20 years to 7,077 primary schools; likewise the teaching force of these schools grew from 7,800 teachers to over 26,000 teachers. The pupils attending the schools in 1894 numbered 280,000, whereas in 1914 the attendance increased to 890,000 pupils in these primary schools. In 1894 the total expense for primary education was 9,370,000 pesos, while in 1914 it was 56,635,000 pesos (a peso is 42 American cents).
The secondary schools are responding also to the modern demands of a democratic conception of education. From mere preparatory institutions for the universities, they are fast becoming schools of advanced education to an increasing number of men and women.
In 1894 the students of secondary schools numbered 3,000, which number rose to 10,000 in 1914, the expenditures having increased from 1,000,000 pesos in 1894 to nearly 6,000,000 in 1914.
Technical schools are a matter of recent development. Two distinct kinds of such schools have been organized and are now maintained in flourishing condition. One kind provides technical training in the various trades for young men from 12 to 15 years, while the second type serves to train the young men for positions as foremen and superintendents. There are four large schools of each one of these types, supported by the National Government at a yearly expense of 1,500,000 pesos. In addition to these, there are 15 trade schools for girls, also under the control of the National Government, giving instruction in the trades in which girls predominate, such as millinery, dressmaking, flower making, telegraphy, typewriting and stenography, glove making, etc.
Of recent development and also under the control of the National Government are the commercial schools for men and women, which provide adequate modern instruction in salesmanship and bookkeeping. A recent addition to the scope of these schools is the degree of doctor, given for advanced work in economic sciences. The National Government spends about 1,500,000 pesos for this branch of education.
Agricultural education in Argentina is of a twofold type, general and special. The special schools, so-called regional schools, look toward the education of future workers in special fields, such as those who engage, for example, in the sugar industries of Tucuman. These schools specialize on the intelligent development of special industries all over Argentina. The curriculum of all
REPUBLICA ARGENTINA SECONDARY EDUCATION REPUBLICA ARGENTINA
Various phases of secondary education as shown in the Argentine exhibit.
these schools is intensely practical and covers a sufficient scientific background such as these practical studies require in the various fields. These schools are also under the control of the National Government through the department of agriculture.
The schools which provide for the thorough scientific instruction underlying all agricultural occupations are under the control of the national universities of Buenos Aires and La Plata.
The annual cost of all agricultural schools is about 3,500,000 pesos, including the expenses incurred in the maintenance of experimental stations, the excursions and university extension teaching.
The universities of Argentina maintain the traditional faculties of jurisprudence, belles letters, philosophy, and pure and applied sciences, developing also the newer departments of university work, such as agriculture, pedagogy, etc. The La Plata University has been instrumental in the exchange of professors and has encouraged the visits of public men of note from Europe and the United States of America.