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In connection with higher education in Argentina it is a point of interest that the number of university graduates in the city of Buenos Aires is in proportion with the population larger than in other cities of the world. The budget of the three or four foremost important universities of Argentina reaches 8,500,000 pesos a year, and their combined attendance was 9,100 students in 1914.
Several sliding screens testified to a belief in the possibilities for mutual helpfulness between the nations of North and South America, particularly Argentina and the United States, and the important part education might play in such relations.
The Republic of China, with the cooperation of several of the missionary organizations active in Chinese work, had a large exhibit space devoted to products of the manual-training and industrial work in Chinese schools and missions, especially work in carved wood. One large booth was given to Tsing Hua College.
Under “ Elementary Education ” and “Secondary Education ” large amount of embroidery and painting was exhibited. Arts and craft work done by orphans of the Zikawei Catholic Mission of Shanghai formed a large section of the exhibit, special features being a remarkable collection of Chinese pagodas, a facsimile of the Imperial throne of China carved in teak wood, a model of a Chinese military junk, teak-wood sideboards, oriental candelabra and screens.
In describing the exhibit, the Chinese Commissioner General, Hon. Chen Chi, declares:
Up to 1900 China had adhered in its educational work to the old and famous curriculum as it existed for thousands of years in the Middle Kingdom. China has produced with the old ideal of education a large number of great men, as the history of the Far East shows. But China found out that western education was necessary; the ideal of old-time education would not do for present and future purposes.
The transformation of the educational system went hand in hand with the great changes in the Government of China brought about in 1900. Not only was the old system of education abolished, but also the famous and oldest university of the world, the “ Hanlin,” became a matter of the past. Kindergartens, primary, elementary, and high-school education took its place. Colleges were founded, universities with western principles were started in the large provincial capitals of the Empire, as well as in Peking, the central capital of the country.
A new step was the foundation of girls' schools all over China. This is so much more of prominence, as in previous times girls were simply educated for home work, and not in the sense of public eclucation. A further step after 1900 was the sending of thousands of students annually abroad.
The exhibit of the Tsing Hua College, of Tsing Hua Yuan, near Peking, emphasized the educational relations between China and the United States. This college, established in 1909 with American
Arts and crafts work by orphans of the Zikawei Catholic Mission, Shanghai, forming part of the Chinese educational exhibit.
cooperation, is supported out of the Chinese indemnity funds returned by the United States. Graduates of the college are selected
annually for education in the United States. The college has about 600 students.
Cuba's exhibit in the Palace of Education was almost entirely devoted to hygiene and sanitation. The school exhibit proper was in the attractive Cuban pavilion, where an entire room was given to education. A miniature of the model school of Santiago de Cuba was exhibited, the work of pupils of the sloyd class in the city schools. The collection of industrial exhibits from the schools included several notable examples of pillow lacework. A model of a new type of oneroom schoolhouse, designed for rural communities, indicated Cuba's concern with this world-wide problem. I chart emphasized the rapid development of education in Cuba, particularly since the beginning of the Republic—from an enrollment of 36,306 in 1892 (before the inauguration of the Republic) to 277,013 in 1913–14.
Of special interest in the Japanese education exhibit were charts showing the subsequent careers of graduates of different types of Japanese educational institutions. In the case of the Imperial universities of Tokyo, Kyoto, Iohoku, and Kyuschu 4,067 graduates were public officials, 2,637 teachers or school officers, 2,606 in business, 2,174 hospital physicians or medical men in general practice, 511 were continuing university studies, and 323 were lawyers. Of the remainder, 1,064 are dead and 1,475 were not heard from or were still undecided as to their careers.
Of the 17,489 graduates of the middle schools for the year 1911-12, 388 were Government officials on March 31, 1913; 1,695 were school teachers or officials, 2,278 were in business, 1,220 were studying in higher schools, 3,936 were in special schools and special technical institutes, 502 were in other schools, 799 were in military and naval schools or in the service, and 6,585 were either unknown or undecided as to their occupations. Of the 4,916 graduates of technical schools of secondary grade, 2,773 were in business, 314 were in special technical schools, 191 were in other schools, 317 were in military service, while 574 were Government officials, 553 school teachers or officers, and 364 undecided as to their occupations. · Exhibits of both academic and industrial work were shown, representing the following institutions: Japanese Woman's University; Miss Tsuda's School, Tokyo; Tokyo Higher Normal School; Tokyo Imperial University; College of Agriculture and the Kyuschu Imperial University; the Art and Technical School of Kyoto City; the Fine Art School for Girls; and the technical schools of the Toyama prefecture.
A special publication descriptive of education in Japan treats of primary education, secondary education, technical education, the training of teachers, higher education, education of women, art education, education of the blind and dumb, libraries and miscellaneous educational agencies. The cost of public education in Japan is shown to have increased from 43,000,000 yen in 1903–4 to 80,500,000 yen in 1912-13. Special attention is given to school hygiene. Libraries increased from 93 in 1903-1 to 540 in 1912-13; the number of volumes grew from 1,000,000 to over 3,000,000; and the visitors to the libraries increased from 550,000 to nearly 4,000,000.
The growth of the Imperial universities was as follows: In 1911-12 there were 6,440 students, as compared with 3,370 in 1902–3; there were 1,270 graduates, as compared with 625; the teachers numbered 600, as compared with 308 in 1902–3; and the expenditures increased from $1,800,000 to $1,550,000.
The following summary table affords a view of the development of educational institutions in Japan between the years 1908 and 1913:
5,996, 139 6,473,592 6,861, 718 7,023,661 7,037, 430
2,238 2,571 2, 669 21, 618 23, 422 25,391 27,076 27,653 980 1,078
1,091 365 450 506 590
659 56 53 52 55
122 115,038 118, 133 122,345 125,304 128, 973 216,582 51,781 56, 239 59,619 64,871
4, 405 10, 257 5,235 6,029 6,341 6,665 6,537 7,517 7,559 7,239
7,438 8,946 27, 438 26,945 26, 244 27, 468 27,048
6,114 6,526 6,694 6,983 6,896 56,573 59,657
64,739 70,085 74,869 192,331 223,719 262,978 302, 341 346,767 151 184 177 156
170 148, 971 149,339 145, 122 142,868 148,761
6,627, 110 7,150, 4707,589, 117 7,809, 140 7,893,719
A number of screens indicated the progress of elementary education in Uruguay. The primary enrollment grew from 72,972 in 1904 to 91,882 in 1909, and 113,620 in 1914. Photographic views illustrated the type of primary work. Special attention was given to health care and education.
The National Institute of Agronomy exhibited models showing various forms of vineyard culture, practical and ornamental plans for trimming.