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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,
BUREAU OF EDUCATION,
I'ashington, October 7, 1915. Sir: Were it possible to print for distribution among those who are directly interested in education a complete account of all the education exhibits of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, a distinct service might thereby be rendered to the cause of education. But this bureau has no funds with which to have such a report compiled, nor are funds available for printing it if it were compiled. I have, however, caused two brief reports to be made of some of the most interesting features of these exhibits—a brief general statement of the nature, purpose, and most striking features of the several exhibits, by W. Carson Ryan, editor in this bureau, and a more detailed report of the exhibits in agricultural education and rura? schools, by Harold W. Foght, the bureau's specialist in rural school practice. Those who read these two reports will have a fairly good idea of the meaning of these exhibits. I recommend that both be published as bulletins of the Bureau of Education, and I am transmitting herewith the first of these reports for that purpose. Respectfully submitted.
P. P. CLAXTON,
('ommissioner. The SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR.
EDUCATION EXHIBITS AT THE PANAMA-PACIFIC
The purpose of this bulletin is to present, for the benefit of school officials and others interested in education, a brief description of the education exhibits at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, held in San Francisco during 1915. Exhibits described herein are almost entirely limited to those that are educational in the narrower sense of the word–having to do with schools or methods, processes, and systems of education. No attempt could be made to describe the exposition itself as an educational institution, however inviting such a task might be. Suffice it to say that no one could have attended the exposition without bringing something educational away from it, and certainly no school man or woman could have visited the fair without gaining new ideas of the progress of civilization and a corresponding stimulus for the work of education.
Most of the exhibits described in this bulletin were in the Palace of Education and Social Economy, situated at the extreme western end of the exhibit building area of the exposition. The space assigned to the different exhibitors may be seen from the floor plan of the Palace of Education, reproduced on page 8. About half the exhibits in this building were devoted to education. A few exhibits not relating wholly to education had educational aspects that have been discussed in part in this bulletin. Some of the States and foreign countries devoted space in their pavilions to school exhibits.
A unified display, rather than numerous exhibits, was the aim of the department of education of the exposition, and this was carried out consistently. The policy of the department is thus set forth by its chief, Mr. Alvin E. Pope:
Domestic exhibits were secured by invitation, the policy of the department being to request each exhibitor to confine his exhibit to one distinct system or process in which he excelled; to some definite lesson which he was capable of teaching the world; to present complete information on his particular subject which would be of interest and benefit to the visitors to an international exposition. These invitations were restricted in order to avoid duplication, and the special exhibits were so assembled as to portray the salient features of modern American education. We have outgrown the old-style educational display, consisting of comprehensive, duplicate exhibits, composed chiefly of
pupils' work; therefore it has been the aim and endeavor of the department to have each exhibitor deal with the fundamental principles of education, illustrating the means used to develop a child into the highest type of citizenship. Foreign countries and insular possessions have followed the general policy of the department in regard to the arrangement of exhibits.
The illustrations used in this bulletin were for the most part contributed by the various exhibitors. In selecting from the large
Floor plan of the Palace of Education and Social Economy, showing space devoted to education exhibit.
FINE, APPUED, AND
number of pictures available several principles were kept in mind: Some pictures were selected to help the reader visualize the exhibit as a whole; others in order that the special impression conveyed by a carefully prepared chart might be reproduced, at least in part; and a number of illustrations owe their inclusion to the hope that school men interested in the work of display in school exhibits may obtain some suggestion from the methods used at San Francisco.
One important phase of the education exhibits it is impossible to describe either by text or illustration-motion pictures. Motionpicture theaters assumed unprecedented importance at this exposition. Every exhibit palace had some; there were seven in the education building alone. In addition, nearly every booth had automatic lantern-slide machines in operation at all times, and the attendance at both the motion-picture theaters and the “stereomotograph” booths was large.
The present bulletin is intended to afford a general statement of the education exhibits. A detailed report of the exhibits in agricultural and rural education is given in a separate bulletin (1916, No. 2) prepared by Harold W. Foght, specialist in rural school practice in the Bureau of Education.