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CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON.
The exhibit of the Carnegie Institution of Washington presented in definite form the work of the Departments of Experimental Evolution, Botanical Kesearch, Entomology. Marine Biology. Terrestrial Magnetism. Meridian Astrometry, Economics and Sociology, and Historical Research, the Nutrition Laboratory, the Geophysical Laboratory, the Mount Wilson Solar Observatory, the Division of Research Associates, as well as the general plan and scope of this important scientific foundation.
The Carnegie Institution of Washington was founded by Andrew Carnegie on January 28, 1902, with an endowment of $10,000,000, which was later increased to $22,000,000. The institution was originally organized under the laws of the District of Columbia*ind incorporated as the Carnegie Institution, but was reincorporated by an act of the Congress of the United States, approved April 28, 1904, under the title of the Carnegie Institution of Washington.
Under the Department of Experimental Evolution the work of the laboratory at Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, N. Y., and at Goose Island was described, especially studies in the theories of heredity of sheep, goats, cats, rats, poultry, canaries, pigeons, and various insects; beans, sunflowers, maize, poppies, etc.; and the study of heredity in man. For the Department of Botanical Research the work of the laboratory at Tucson, Ariz., and Carmel., Cal., was outlined.
The exhibit described recent work undertaken by the Department of Embryology in association with Johns Hopkins University. The Department of Marine Biology has a main laboratory at Tortugas, Fla., but temporary branch laboratories have been established at Nassau and at Andros Island (in the Bahamas), in Jamaica, and upon Murray Island, Torres Straits, Australia. The object of the department is to "pursue intensive studies upon problems of the tropical ocean, paying special attention to those of physiology, "heredity, variation, and others lying in the borderland between biology and pathology."
Investigations in nutrition have been carried on, according to the exhibit, since 1913, and a laboratory especially designed for this purpose was completed at Boston in 1908.
The exhibit illustrated also the work of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, with its plan for a general magnetic survey of the earth, which began in 1904. A specially designed nonmagnetic ship, the Carnegie, of which a model was shown in the exhibit, has been engaged in the work since 1909. Her novel equipment and freedom from magnetism permit the making of precise magnetic observations at sea, for navigational and scientific purposes, almost as readily as on land.
Investigations to determine the modes of formation and the physical properties of the rocks of the earth's crust; the endeavor through a southern observatory, located in South America, to secure accurate measure of the stars visible in the Southern Hemisphere; additional studies of the sun made at the Mount Wilson Observatory, near Pasadena, Cal.; studies in American economic history; investigation of the source of American history in foreign archives, are some of the activities of the institution as described in the exhibit.
EDUCATIONAL WORK OF THE CHURCHES.
Special attention was given in the 50 or more church exhibits to the school work of the different denominations.
The American Missionary Association emphasized the Corn Club work at Tougaloo University, Tougaloo, Miss. According to the exhibit of this association—
A wise democracy will not offer its masses merely the schools of the professional or leisure classes, but will multiply schools until there are enough to go around and thus one to fit each American group.
As an invitation to the fairer possibilities—because the best wealth of a nation is always its poor boys—all these diverse groups of schools will be " open at the top." The State, as destiny, must never forbid the university to any child because he is poor or black.
The association reported a total of 7,605 pupils under industrial instruction in its schools: Sewing, dressmaking, and millinery, 3,344; cooking and housekeeping, 1,352; mechanical industries, 1,101; printing, 54; agriculture (advanced), 415; elementary manual arts, 1,339.
Charts of the American Baptist Home Mission Society showed that the society began its work of education for the Negroes in 1862. Special emphasis has been laid upon the training of preachers and teachers. The society assists in the maintenance of 13 higher educational institutions and 10 secondary schools, with an enrollment of 7,491, and a teaching force of 197, of whom 107 were Negroes. Educational work is also done for the Indians and the people of Mexico, Cuba, and Porto Pico.
Colored charts described the work of the board of foreign missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Some of the educational work listed was as follows: Korea, mission established 1885, 6,136 students under instruction; China, mission dating from 1847, 17,807 students; Malaysia (mission founded 1885), 7,0G1 students; India (mission founded 1856), 39,309 students; Africa (mission founded 1833), 8,071 students: South America (mission founded 1836), 2.827 students; and Mexico (mission established 1876), 4,617 students.
In India the Bareilly Theological School, founded in 1872, has three departments: (1) Seminary course for men, (2) normal school for teachers, and (3) a woman's training school. The Woman's Home Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church maintains 11 industrial buildings and kindergartens, 25 mission schools, 3 national training schools, and 4 conference training schools for missionaries and deaconesses.
The Protestant Episcopal Church showed pictures of activities in St. Augustine's School, Kaleigh, X. C; St. Paul's School, Lawrenceville, Va.; and St. Philip's School. San Antonio, Tex., with emphasis on such practical activities as corn growing, sewing, and bench work.
The ideal training for social service was set forth from the point of view of the Protestant Episcopal Church by means of the diagram given herewith:
Social teaching of the Bible.
Sunday school forum for
the discussion of social
Social teaching of the Bible.
Instruction in social problems (for mature pupils).
Elementary service (gifts, visits to social institutions).
Social preparation of teachers through teacher-training classes.