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in different forms. Samples of kelp were shown to call attention to this marine plant as a source of potash salts.

Agricultural engineering.—The section in agricultural engineering contributed by the Iowa Agricultural College demonstrated the principal lines of work pursued by the department of agricultural engineering of the institution. The exhibit included a model of an ideal farmstead, embodying the recommendations of the college, and a case of exhibit materials showing the activities of the college in teaching, research, and extension work, and including for this purpose specimens of students' shopwork, publications by students and by the college, models of farm structures, working models illustrat


Fic. 36.—In the section of the New Jersey Experiment Station.

ing the action of two and four stroke cycle engines, and numerous photographs showing college and station views and activities.

Horticulture.—Agricultural college and experiment station work in horticulture was illustrated by materials received from the Massachusetts Agricultural College and the College of Agriculture of the University of California. The Massachusetts institution illustrated its work in floriculture by means of photographs, publications, and samples of materials used in different lines of instruction, including the construction of greenhouses. Along the more general lines of horticulture, types of pruning tools were shown, and a collection of specimens was presented which demonstrated proper and improper methods of pruning and their effect. Spraying appliances, including shut-offs, couplings, types of hose, and nozzles were exhibited, and samples of manufactured fruit products, such as jellies, jams, butters, grape juice, cider, and cider vinegar, were included in the exhibit to call attention to this phase of the work conducted by the institution in an effort to establish a greater utilization of the lower grades of fruits and otherwise waste products. Other college and station activities were shown by means of photographs.

The horticultural exhibit of the College of Agriculture of the University of California was based on the work in viticulture,


Fig. 37.—la the section of the College of Agriculture of the University of California.

enology, zymology, and oleiculture. Photographs were presented showing laboratory and orchard work of students in viticulture and of different operations in fig culture, together with specimens illustrating caprification through the agency of Blastophaga grossonim and its results. Date seeds as a basis for the classification of varieties were exhibited, and the propagation of citrus trees was illustrated by means of specimens and photographs. Grape seeds and olive pits were included in the exhibit to show how these differ in varieties. Results of experiments in raisin making were given to show that the riper grapes give the larger raisin crop. The methods of packing grapes were illustrated by means of sample packages, samples of packing material, and photographs. A vine-cutting machine, a device for determining the diameter of cuttings, and an olive-seed clipper, designed by the California Experiment Station, were also included. The results of germination tests showed that soaking olive seeds in water for 15 days and clipping the apex of the seeds is most efficient in hastening germination. A model of a yeast propagator for wineries was shown, and directions for its use were given. In addition, a model was presented of an apparatus designed by this station for making olive paste, and samples of paste made of green and ripe olives were shown. Attention was called to the results of fruit-juice investigations by the station by an exhibit of 23 samples


Flo .'i8.—Model of an ideal farmstead, as shown by the Iowa Agricultural College.

of different products from grapes, oranges, apples, and lemons, and the different methods of preparation were explained.

Rural economics and sociology.—Interesting exhibits in the section of rural economics and sociology were furnished by the Massachusetts Agricultural College, the Agricultural College and Experiment Station of the University of Wisconsin, and the New York State College of Agriculture and Experiment Station at Cornell University. The materials supplied by the Massachusetts Agricultural College consisted of charts and publications describing unsatisfactory social conditions in rural communities, and showing how they may be remedied with the agricultural college as a cooperating factor. The results of social surveys of different communities were presented, showing the relation of rural homes to the number of churches, the number and type of schools, and to social and fraternal organizations. The frequency of newspapers and magazines and farm journals in the community surveyed was indicated, and methods of holding conferences, courses at extension schools, and programs of rural gatherings were given.

The Wisconsin College of Agriculture outlined its courses in rural economics, which included studies of the principles of economics,


Pig. 3!).—In the section of agricultural engineering

farm records and accounts, farm management, land tenure, the economic history of agriculture, cooperation and marketing, and rural life problems. Research work in progress was reported as covering cost accounting, farm and rural life surveys, the history of agricultural production in the United States, farm credit in Wisconsin, and marketing Wisconsin potatoes, butter, and cheese; and the extension work as including farm contests, assistance given farmers in accounting, and lectures on farm management, marketing, and cooperation. The results of the study of marketing of Wisconsin cheese were shown graphically, and facts with reference to the rank of Wisconsin as a cheese-producing State, the distribution of primary ship

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ments from Wisconsin, and the relative proportion of American and foreign types of cheeses to different States were pointed out. It was shown that Wisconsin is the leading cheese-producing State, and that Illinois receives the largest quantity of Wisconsin cheese in primary shipments. The cost of manufacturing and marketing Wisconsin cheese of different types was shown, and the portion of the price paid by the consumer which goes to the producer and the different middle men was indicated.

The New York State College of Agriculture exhibited a farmers' work report and ledger account on growing potatoes, and a.summary


Fig. 40.—In the exhibit of the Massachusetts Agricul-
tural College.

of accounts on the production and disposal of cabbage, corn silage, hay, and oats. Sets of cost accounts from successful New York farms were shown, and attention was called to the fact that success depends upon the size of the farm, the efficient use of men and horses, and the interrelation of these two factors.

Agronomy.—The material illustrating work in agronomy was supplied by the Illinois, Kansas, and South Carolina agricultural colleges. The College of Agriculture of the University of Illinois illustrated its work in corn breeding with a specimen of branch corn,

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