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a mutant from Learning Yellow Dent, and specimens showing the heredity of alhinism and partial albinism, the families giving three to one ratios in segregation with greens dominant to albinos and to green yellows. Part of this exhibit showed by means of breeding methods that the oil as well as the protein content of corn may be increased or diminished to a marked extent. The influence of the type of soil as affecting the results secured with the three essential plant food elements was demonstrated by a series of baskets of corn representing the different yields secured and bringing out the fact
that on sand the use of nitrogen produced 63.95 bushels per acre, or more than three times the yield obtained from the use of either phosphoric acid or potash. On peat, potash gave an acre yield of 39.G3 bushels, as compared with 2.45 for nitrogen and 1.7 bushels for phosphoric acid, and on brown silt loam the application of phosphoric acid resulted in a yield of 65.G bushels per acre, as compared with 52.0" for nitrogen and 52.73 for potash. The progress of soil-survey work in Illinois was shown by means of an interesting map.
The exhibit of the Kansas Agricultural College and Experiment Station pointed out that, in experiments on the preparation of land for winter wheat, land plowed 7 inches deep on July 15 gave a yield of 27.87 bushels per acre, while land plowed 3 inches deep on August 15 and September 15 gave smaller returns. Photographs of wheat on land plowed at different times were exhibited. It was also shown that crop rotation, even when restricted to corn, oats, and wheat, gives better results than continuous cropping. Field and milling tests of pure strains of wheat were outlined to show that the best variety is the one giving the largest average yield of flour of the best quality. Of the five varieties, Turkey No. 839 hard winter
Flu, 4'2.—In the agronomy section.
wheat stood first, with a yield per acre of 43.9 bushels of grain, giving 10 barrels of flour with a 94 per cent value for bread making. Samples of Turkey and Kharkof wheat from different parts of Kansas were included in the exhibit to indicate the influence of soil types and rainfall on the character of the grain. Tabulated data, photographs, and samples illustrating the effect of blending Kansas hard winter wheat with California white winter wheat in bread making were shown, together with the chemical composition of these wheats and the proportions of the different mill products obtained from them. Samples of sorghums profitably grown for grain and forage in Kansas were included and data given which indicate that sweet sorghum, as compared with corn and Kafir, gives a larger yield of silage as well as carbohydrates, and produces better gains in calves if fed with cottonseed meal,
The section of agronomy contained one case devoted to cotton contributed by the Clemson Agricultural College and Experiment Station of South Carolina. Specimens and photos were included of diseases affecting cotton, cotton wilt, and anthracnose, and of insects attacking the plants, such as the cotton root louse, cotton field ant, cotton-boll weevil, wireworms, and click beetles. Directions for their control were also given. Samples of sea-island and upland cotton were presented, and results of cotton breeding for the improvement of the lint brought out. Seven years of breeding work with blue-ribbon cotton, it was shown, have resulted in a marked improvement of the lint. The steps in the manufacture of cotton from the raw stock to the twisted yarn were illustrated by samples of the products and by-products. Samples of cottonseed products Mere included, showing crushed kernels, meal, flour, oleo oils, washing powder, paint, and shortening.
Agricultural technology.—The material in the section of agricultural technology referred especially to dairy manufactures and sugar-house practice. The College of Agriculture of the University of Wisconsin called attention to its courses in dairying and to the lines of instruction, embracing farm dairying, butter and cheese making, milk and cream testing, dairy mechanics, pasteurization, ice-cream making, factory accounting, starch making, dairy bacteriology, dairy chemistry, milk inspection, dairy breeding and feeding, city milk supply, and butter and cheese judging. Illustrations were shown of eight factory tests devised at the university, including the commonly known and widely applied Babcock test. In addition, charts and maps were presented showing the location of creameries, cheese factories, skimming stations, and condensers in the State, and statistics of production showing that Wisconsin produced one hundred and eighty million pounds of cheese in 1914 and that her annual production of dairy products amounts to over eighty-five million dollars.
The New York State College of Agriculture at Cornell University exhibited photographs illustrating the teaching of dairy industry, including views of the laboratories devoted to dairy testing, cheese work, marketing, milk studies, bacteriology, study of butter, and practices in the farm dairy.
The College of Agriculture of the University of Louisiana presented diagrams and photographs showing the relation between sucrose, reducing sugars and gums, in the fermentation of a 10 per cent sucrose solution, between Clerget single polarization and true sucrose in the fermentation of a 10 per cent sucrose solution, and the relation between the actual deterioration of a sugar and its decrease in market value according to the basis of sale. The relation of sugars of cane juice to polarization at different stages and the comparative yield of cane sugar and available sugar in D74 and Louisiana purple were shown in diagrams. Sugar-cane diseases, such as root rot, red rot, stem rot, pineapple disease, and rind disease, were also shown in photographs.
Forestry.—In the section of forestry, maps, photographs, and diagrams were presented illustrating the methods and scope of forestry work by the Vermont Forestry Department, which is closely affiliated
Fig. 43.—In the section of plant pathology.
with the University of Vermont. The location of State forests, places where lectures are held and where inspections are made, and points where 10,000 trees have been planted by private owners were shown by maps. Specimens of tree seedlings were included in the exhibit, and nursery studies and experiments on evaporation and transpiration, together with meteorological data affecting the same, nursery methods of seedling production, studies on eccentric growths, natural reproduction, rates of growth, yields of hardwoods and the like, were illustrated.
Plant pathology.—The section of plant pathology was illustrated through contributions made by the Massachusetts Agricultural College. Photographs and specimens of different plant diseases were presented and demonstration mounts of plant disease materials were included. Cultures of pathogenic fungi, photographs of student lahoratory work, and types of spraying nozzles used in disease control were also shown.
Poultry production.—The section in poultry production covered work done by the Oregon Agricultural College and Experiment Station. The central feature of the exhibit related to methods and results of breeding for increased egg production. Actual records, individual and flock averages at the Oregon station were given for a series of years, and a striking increase in production was shown. Many photographs were included of good and poor layers, with their progeny, affording an opportunity for studying types in laying hens. Results of individual trap-nest selections and cross breeding for a series of years were given in diagram.
It was shown that high fecundity is inherited. The importance, however, of environment, such as housing, feeding, and general management received considerable attention. There were 50 charts and many photographs, in addition to explanatory titles. In addition to this, an excellent stereomotograph was operated as a part of the exhibit. A model colony house and trap nest used in poultry breeding work formed another part of the exhibit.
Economic entomology.—The section of economic entomology contained interesting experiments on grasshopper control as carried on by the Utah Experiment Station. These covered expert cultivation of the land, poison baits, and the use of mechanical devices, such as the "balloon" and grasshopper machines. The exhibit included also sugar-beet sprayers used in the campaigns against grasshoppers, sugar-beet army worms, and web worms.