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TECHNICAL COURSES.

Manual training department:

Organization of manual training.

History and literature of manual training.

Industrial economics.

Elementary mechanical drawing.

Projection drawing.

Machine drafting.

Elementary architectural drawing.

Advanced architectural drawing.

Manual training design.

Freehand drawing.

Elementary woodwork.

Upper grade woodwork.

Joinery.

Pattern making.

Elementary carpentry.

Advanced carpentry.

Millwork.

Cabinet making.

Elementary wood turning.

Advanced wood turning.

Elementary wood finishing.

Advanced wood finishing.

Saw filing.

Elementary forging.

Advanced forging.

Elementary machine shopwork.

Advanced machine shopwork.

Millwrighting.

Foundry practice.

Cement work.

Elementary bricklaying.

Manual training department — Continued.

Advanced bricklaying.

Elementary plumbing.

Advanced plumbing.

Special shopwork.

Primary handwork.

Elementary printing.

Advanced printing.
Home economics department:

Food study.

Elementary cookery.

Dietetics.

Advanced cookery.

Food chemistry.

Chemistry of nutrition.

Plain sewing.

Model sewing.

Dressmaking.

Art needlework.

Textiles.

Trade dressmaking. Home economics department — Continued.

Millinery.

Drawing and art work.

Mechanical drawing.

Drawing and design.

Interior decoration and furnishing.

General organization and management.

Emergencies and home nursing.

Household management.

Not merely a local Wisconsin institution.—The Stout Institute should not be regarded as merely a local institution of the State in which it is located, as most State normal schools may be regarded. Its students come from many States, and the catalogue for 1914—15 states that its graduates are teaching or doing supervisory work in 27 States and in Canada.

2. SPECIAL COURSES AUTHORIZED IN CERTAIN SCHOOLS.

The second policy in organizing training for special teachers is to provide for the development of adequate facilities in certain of the existing general normal schools of a State, with definite restriction of the development of similar facilities in other schools of the same State. Inasmuch as a normal school that restricts itself to the training of general teachers for elementary schools needs for this purpose teachers of music, drawing, and handwork, the necessary development of small departments for this purpose is permitted in all of the normal schools of the State.

This policy favored in New Jersey.—A general expression of this type of policy is found in the 1913 report of State Commissioner Kendall, of New Jersey. It reads as follows:

The State should utilize its normal schools for the special training of teachers for various kinds of special activities. The normal school at Montclair, for example, could train teachers for mentally defective children. The State board of education and the principal of the school are maturing plans for this purpose.

The State normal school at Newark might he utilized for the training of teachers for State-aided vocational schools and also for the training of teachers for manual training. The training of the former class of teachers should perhaps be mainly carried on in evening classes for men and women engaged during the day in the industries. Upon such men and women we must depend for teachers in these State-aided vocational schools.

The normal school at Trenton is already training teachers for domestic science and commercial branches, and the school which it is hoped will be established in the southern part of the State should have a course for the adequate training of teachers in agricultural activities.

The above is not so much the statement of a definite program as related to each particular school as it is the declaration of two principles: First, that the State, by means of its normal schools, should train, and train adequately, for the special activities in which the State needs teachers; and, second, that there should not be a duplication of training in two or more schools. Such duplication is not only wasteful, but liable to impair the quality of the instruction. Moreover, so many teachers might be trained in a given field that the demand for such teachers would be exceeded (pp. 134-135).

Authorization of special courses in certain New York schools.— The policy advocated by Commissioner Kendall is being carried out in New York and Michigan. In the bulletin of the New York State department of education of October 15, 1911, the latest issued dealing with normal schools), the following statement is found (p. 25):

SPECIAL NORMAL-TRAINING COURSES.

To provide normal training for teachers of special courses in the public schools special professional courses have been authorized in the State normal schools. It Is not the policy of the State to give all special courses in each of the State normal schools, but to assign to each school the special work for which it is best adapted by reason of its location, organization, and equipment. Such special courses have been authorized as follows:

Buffalo.—Mechanicnl drawing; machine-shop practice; printing, pattern making; joinery and cabinet work; cookery; sewing and millinery.

Cortland.—Agriculture course.

Fredonia.—Music and drawing.

Geneseo.—Teacher-librarian's course.

Oswego.-—Manual arts. ■* Plattsburg.—Commercial course.

Potsdam.—Music and drawing.

The graduates of these courses will receive a diploma which will be a license to teach in the public schools of the State the subject completed.

The detailed content of each of the special courses listed above is outlined by the State department of education.

The amount of teaching energy devoted to the organization of these special courses may be inferred from the data given below.

In the Buffalo normal school, which is designated as the one to develop vocational courses, the faculty contains for this purpose the following instructors:1

One man, principal of the vocational department.
One man, teacher of drawing and penmanship.
One woman, teacher of drawing.
Three women, teachers of domestic sciences and arts.

At Oswego, where special courses in manual arts are authorized, the faculty includes:2

One man for director of manual arts, criticism, drawing, and shop administra-
tion.
One man for woodworking, art metal work, molding.

One man for printing and supervision of printing and commercial lettering.
One-third of a man's time for " form and drawing methods."
One woman for domestic science.
One-third of a woman's time for "sewing, basketry, weaving."

At Plattsburg, which is especially authorized to give commercial courses, two teachers are employed for this purpose, but one of them is also principal of the high school. However, this faculty also includes two teachers of manual training, one of drawing, and one of domestic science and art—almost as large a staff in these lines for which it is not authorized to train special teachers as is found at Buffalo and Oswego.

Michigan assignment of special courses to different schools.—The Michigan plan for assigning to different normal schools the function of training special teachers for certain subjects is described in the report of the State board of education for 1912, as follows (p. 7):

A new plan for the training of teachers for special subjects has been formulated. As at present arranged, each of the normal schools maintains departments in the special subjects. Beginning with the fall of 1913, the State Normal College at Ypsilanti will prepare teachers in the household arts; the Central Michigan Normal School, at Mount Pleasant, will prepare teachers of agriculture; and the Western State Normal School, at Kalamazoo, will train teachers in the manual arts and trades. The normal school so designated for each subject is the only one empowered to issue diplomas or teachers' certificates in the given subject. This will not curtail the usefulness of the departments already organized in other than the given subject, since it will continue to be desirable to provide all the special subjects as electives. The new ruling will insure, by means of this concentration of effort, greater uniformity and thorough technical training for the special teachers.

The faculty of the Ypsilanti normal school, as given in the yearbook for 1913-14, contains about 85 teachers, excluding the faculty of

1 Circular of information, 1914-15. - Catalogue for 1914-15.

the training school. This includes about 20 professors, 5 associate professors, 10 assistant professors, 20 instructors, and 30 assistants. In the department of household arts, which is assigned to Ypsilanti as a special department, there are five teachers. One of these is listed as head of the department (rank not stated), 2 are instructors, and 2 assistants. This number of teachers is sufficient to provide strong courses in home economics and household arts in an institution 'where there are strong related departments in the natural sciences and the fine arts, as is the case at Ypsilanti. As regards material equipment, the yearbook states that in the near future a household-arts building will be erected. When this occurs, the number of instructors in this special department will probably be increased, since so large an institution would probably develop an enormous registration in the household-arts department.

.1. DUPLICATION OF SPECIAL COURSES IN SEVERAL SCHOOLS.

The third type of policy in the organization of training for special teachers within a given State is to permit any normal school in the State to develop facilities for any special courses that it cares to give. This is the policy followed in most States, and, under it, most normal schools are likely to develop special two-year courses for teachers of music, drawing and manual training, and home economics.

Sometimes done to use time of special teachers.—In the large schools where two or more college teachers are employed in any one of these subjects, a. fairly adequate course can be given. In the smaller schools where only one college teacher of each subject is employed, the special two-year course which he can offer is not likely to be strong. Unless such a special teacher is also employed in the practice school or the normal high-school, however, he is likely to have to offer a course for special teachers of his subject in order to employ his time; for in a small normal school the amount of instruction required in music, drawing, manual training, and home economics, for students in the general courses, is very slight. The general students seldom take more than two periods a week of music through two years, or two periods of drawing through one year, or two periods of manual training or home economics through part of one year. Yet so extensive is the discussion of these subjects that every school feels it must have a special teacher of each. This sometimes results in a rather anomalous situation in a small normal school, where there will be four special teachers for these special subjects, and only as many more teachers for the general subjects of education, English, history, sciences, and mathematics, which necessarily consume much more teaching energy in the preparation of general elementary teachers. For example, according to the 1914 catalogue of one of the New England normal schools, there are on the faculty four teachers of the general subjects (pedagogy, science, English, and sociology) and four teachers of the special subjects, one teacher each for art, domestic arts, music, and manual training. No doubt these teachers also teach the children in the practice school; yet they find time to offer " a three years' curriculum to prepare for teaching and supervising music, drawing, and domestic arts.*'

Specifically authorized in some States: Minnesota.—In some States each normal school is independent of any central control in organizing such special courses as it pleases to give. In other States, however, the State normal school board may specifically authorize all of the normal schools to offer all of the specialized courses. For example, in the case of Minnesota, we find the following action recorded in report of the State normal school board for 1911-12:1

The normal schools have responded to the demand, which has become very evident in the State, for teachers of specialized training. Upon the recommendations of the presidents (of the normal schools), the normal-school board has authorized the establishment of special courses for the training of supervisors of music and drawing, of special primary teachers, and teachers in home economics and manual training.

The normal schools of Minnesota are large enough, on the average, so that slightly more than the time of one instructor is employed in the four standard specialized subjects, namely, music, drawing, manual training, and household arts or home economics. Consequently, instead of only four teachers for these subjects combined, from five to seven are employed.

Examples of duplication in large normal schools of Missouri.— Among the normal schools maintaining larger special departments under the third type of policy which we are discussing are those of Missouri. At Warrensburg the catalogue distinguishes the academic and the special or technical departments as follows:

ACADEMIC DEPARTMENT.

Agriculture, physiography, and geography.

Biology.

Chemistry, physiology, and hygiene.

Economics.

Education.

English language and literature.

French and German.

History.

Latin and Greek.

Mathematics.

Physics.

Training school.

DEPARTMENT OF TECHNICAL SUBJECTS.

Commerce. Manual training.

Drawing. Music.

Household arts. Physical education.

1 Seventeenth Bien. Rept. of Supt. of Pub. Instr. of Minnesota, p. 95.

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