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The number of teachers at Warrensburg, excluding those in the practice school, is about 40. In this number are included 2 teachers of drawing, 2 of manual training, 2 of home economics, and 4 of music. (Bulletin for 1914-15.)

The number of teachers at the Kirksville (Mo.) Normal School is also about 40 (excluding teachers in the practice school and " teaching scholars"). In this number are included 1 full-time teacher and 1 part-time teacher of manual arts, 2 of drawing, etc., 2 of home economics, and 3 of music. (Bulletin, 1914.)

Somewhat similar data are found in the faculty of the normal school at Cape Girardeau, Mo. Thus each of three of the large normal schools of one State devotes approximately one-fourth of its teaching energy to these four special subjects. In the Warrensburg and Cape Girardeau catalogues there are outlined full threeyear courses for high-school graduates who plan to prepare to teach each of these special subjects. The number of graduates of each of these courses is not indicated, however.

Second policy better than first or third.—Of the three types of policies in organizing courses for the training of special teachers in the normal schools of a State, it should be said that the first policy, namely, to establish a separate normal school for this purpose is probably not necessary in any State. This is shown by the fact that some schools that have been established in this way have become largely schools for training general teachers. The fact that all of the new special and vocational teachers in a State may constitute less than 10 per cent of the total number of new teachers shows that most States can ill afford to establish a special normal school for some part or all of this 10 per cent.

The third type of policy, namely, permitting any normal school in the State to establish any special courses, is not bad where the normal schools concerned are so large that two or more teachers are employed in the special subject in which special training is to be given. In the smaller schools, however, it is likely to be inadequate, owing to the lack of sufficient equipment and teaching staff. In any case, it is likely to prove expensive, through the unnecessary duplication of equipment and teaching staff in the several normal schools of the State. One of the most favorite bases for requests by normal school presidents to the legislature for additional funds is the plea for special buildings and equipment for these special courses. Yet the statistics show that relatively few graduates are produced even when the faculties are provided.

Obviously, in most States, the best policy is the second one, namely, to develop adequate facilities for the training of teachers of a given special subject in one of the regular normal schools of the State. This avoids the waste entailed in establishing a special school, which prevails under the first policy, and the waste from duplication under the third policy. At the same time it may assure as thorough training as does the first policy, and avoid the inadequate training which may result from the third policy.


The principal subjects in which normal schools provide training courses for special teachers are music, drawing, manual training, home economics and household arts, and commercial subjects. Practically all normal schools have courses for general teachers in the first four subjects mentioned, and most of them announce training courses for special teachers in each subject. The organization of training courses for special teachers of commercial subjects is not so common, but the courses are found in a number of normal schools.

Difficult to analyze and classify courses.—To attempt to classify and describe the special courses provided in all these subjects would be a difficult task and would not be worth while from the standpoint of this bulletin. Certain general characteristics may be noted, however, and a few sample courses in manual training, home economics, arid commercial subjects presented.

Two opposite types of curricula. 1. Much, general work included.—In general, the courses organized for the training of special teachers fall into two main types. The first type of course is constructed by slightly modifying the regular course for general teachers. This modification usually consists in permitting a prospective special teacher to elect about one-fourth of his work in the special subject in which he is interested. The remainder of his course will consist of the usual courses in education, psychology, geography, mathematics, physical training, etc., taken by the students in the general course. This type of course is common in the normal schools where there is only one teacher for the special subject in question. Needless to say, the graduates of such special courses have had very meager training for their specialties.

A modification of the above type of course is to provide an additional year of more or less special training for students who have completed one of the regular courses for general teachers. This additional year, however, often contains further work in general subjects, such as the history of education or sociology, and may not provide any more thorough special training than the shorter course described above.

2. Two or three years of highly specialized work.—The opposite type of course consists of two or three years of work devoted almost entirely to the special subject that the student is preparing to teach, with such courses in other subjects as are definitely and specifically helpful in the special subject. A few hours in education and practice teaching are usually included in such a program. When one becomes familiar with the large amount of special and related subject matter that it is necessary to master in order to be well prepared to teach any one of the special subjects under consideration, there remains no doubt that these more highly specialized courses are necessary in order to give adequate training.

Sample manual training course, Oxford, Ohm.—As a sample manual training course, there is outlined below the work required in the two-year course for high-school graduates at the State Normal School at Oxford, Ohio. There are about 5 teachers to give the special instruction included in this course, and there were 0 graduates from it in 1915. It is of the last general type described above, namely, almost entirely special in content.

Course for special teachers of manual arts.



Object drawing anil sketching 2

Elementary mechanical drawing 4

Elementary design 2

Psychology, principles of teaching- 6

Rhetoric and composition 6

Handwork in wood 6

Sanitation and health:

a. Hygiene; first aid 1

6. Physical education 2

Elective 3



Advanced mechanical drawing 4

Constructive design 2

Modern educational tendencies 3

Organization and special method of

the manual arts 4

Cabinetmaking 6

Trigonometry; analytics; shop

mathematics G

School organization and management 3

Teaching manual arts 4

Credits required for first year 32 Credits required second year 32

All students are strongly urged to complete the full four-year course (see p. 117) and receive the degree of bachelor of science in education, thereby placing themselves in. line for the better teaching positions. However, those who must teach before completing the four-year course may take the course above and receive a State diploma and State teaching certificate. All electives in the course must be manual arts subjects.

Sample hom-e economics courses. Valley City, N. Dak.—The course in home economics (domestic science) in the State Normal School at Valley City, N. Dak., is a good example of a two-year course for highschool graduates which contains a large amount of general work. There were either three or four teachers in the special department (three in the faculty list, but four in the departmental description) and 23 graduates from the course in June, 1914.1 The course of study is outlined below.

» Catalogue, 1914. p. 2t.

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Los Angeles, Col.—A much more specialized course in home economics is the one in the State normal school at Los Angeles, Cal. The department of home economics in this institution had 2 teachers in 1914-15, with 2 student assistants, and a third teacher for part of the year. The number of candidates for graduation in the home economics course in June, 1914, numbered 40. (Announcement, 1914-15.) The department offered a two-year course for high-school graduates and a one-year course for normal-school graduates. Only the twoyear course is outlined below:

Home economics course at Los Angeles, Cal.

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Sample course for commercial teachers: Salem, Mass.—As a final sample of courses for the training of special teachers, we shall present a course for prospective teachers of commercial subjects, which is offered in the State normal school at Salem, Mass. In this school the time of about four teachers is devoted to instruction in commercial subjects, and there were 15 graduates from the department in June, 1913. The fundamental course covers three years of work for highschool graduates. In a note in the catalogue for 1913-14 it is stated that the State board of education had under consideration the lengthening of the course to four years, which would include one year of business experience under the supervision of the school. The threeyear course is largely specialized, but includes a certain amount of work in closely related subjects. It is outlined below.1

Course for commercial teachers at Salem, Mass.


Observation and practice teaching, 9 weeks.

A carefully elaborated announcement of normal-school courses for the training of commercial teachers is the third annual commercial catalogue of the State normal school at Whitewater, Wis. In 1913 the board of regents established a special department at this school for training commercial teachers, and very thoroughly organized courses are offered.

Courses for teachers of trades.—Special courses for teachers of trades and related vocational courses are not discussed here, because the normal schools have not generally undertaken the task of training such teachers and are probably not fitted to do so in most cases. According to Commissioner Snedden, of Massachusetts, the best plan for training such teachers is to organize evening courses in the Stateaided industrial schools in certain of the larger cities. These courses would give the necessary general and professional training to intelligent skilled workmen who are engaged during the day in the trade. After completing the evening course they would be prepared for

1 Catalogue, 1913-14, p. 39.

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