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teaching. Graduation from an industrial school and experience in the trade should precede the professional training. For further discussion, see the annual report of the Massachusetts Board of Education for 1912-13, pages 62-68.

Of the existing State normal schools, Stout Institute in Wisconsin is the one that is most adequately equipped to train teachers of trades. Tuskegee Institute, in Alabama, receives a small amount of State aid and to that extent may be considered a State school. Needless to state, it provides the most thorough and efficient courses for training teachers of trades, many of its graduates being engaged in similar smaller schools for negroes. Likewise, Hampton Institute in Virginia provides excellent training for teachers of trades. If day schools for this purpose are to be established for white teachers in the North, they might profit by a study of the methods pursued at Tuskegee and Hampton.

Courses for special teachers of agriculture.—A few normal schools maintain well-organized special courses for teachers of agriculture. A good example is the three-year course for high-school graduates in the State Normal School at Cape Girardeau, Mo. The department of agriculture in this school employs three men as teachers. Hence, it is well-staffed to give the special courses to prepare teachers of this subject in high schools. The three-year course is of the highly specialized type. It is outlined below.

Course for special teachers of agriculture at Cape Girardeau, Mo.

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Chapter XIV.

PROGRAM FOR DEVELOPMENT OF NORMAL-SCHOOL

STANDARDS.

Reiteration of the demand for standardization.—All the studies reported in the preceding chapters of this monograph make it clear that there is great need of a movement to standardize normal schools. Again it may be said, as in an earlier paragraph, that this demand for standardization is not to be confused with the demand that all normal schools be made alike. The organizations and entrance requirements of various normal schools may vary in accordance with the local demands and spheres of operation of the different institutions. In each case, however, the characteristics of the school should be defined. The student body will then find that other higher institutions can deal equitably with their claims; the legislature will know more definitely the purposes for which it is appropriating funds; superintendents throughout the State will know more fully what kind of products they are to look for; and the community will understand and respect the normal school more fully than ever in the past.

Standardization should be from within.—The question arises at once, Who is to do the work? Outside agancies are not likely to succeed, because wherever these agencies criticize an institution they stir up antagonisms rather than bring about reforms. Furthermore, if outside agencies compel reform through the arousal of public sentiment or through legislative action, there is likely to be a halfhearted or even unfriendly attitude on the part of normal-school faculties. Even a State superintendent or commissioner finds himself unable to change normal schools as a result of his investigations without a long struggle, during which he has to bring the officers of the normal schools to take his point of view.

This is equivalent to the demand that in all respects normal schools become scientific.—There can be no question whatever that normal schools ought to standardize themselves. These institutions would gain many indirect advantages, as well as direct advantages, from an effort to understand and define themselves. The normal school ought to be a center of vigorous study of all kinds of educational institutions. Teachers who are going out into rural schools ought to learn during their normal courses to understand rural schools. Teachers who are going into urban schools should have these institutions clearly defined during their period of training. Teachers in service ought to be given courses in normal schools which will improve them in professional equipment. This task of defining other institutions will be most intelligently undertaken by that normal faculty which has made a serious effort to understand and define their own work. When an officer of any educational institution begins to study his own functions, he develops an attitude and a method which carry him out to deal with all the problems of all educational institutions. There is nothing that will cultivate in normal-school teachers and presidents the attitude of scientific study of education more quickly or more completely than the study of the functions of their own institution.

The indirect advantages above referred to would furnish sufficient justification for the urgent plea that normal schools study their own functions. The direct advantages need hardly be enumerated again in the concluding chapter of this study. It remains only to outline the methods which may be followed.

Reports on organization and operations needed.—It is suggested that normal schools add to their publications a president's report. This report could be made a part of the annual catalogue, or it could be published separately, after the manner of most university presidents' reports. In some cases it might be desirable for the presidents of the normal schools in a given State to unite and issue a single joint report.

Characteristics of the student body.—This president's report should give full information about the student body. A table should be given reporting explicitly the amount of training of each student at the time of his or her admission to the normal school. There should be explanatory statements indicating how these facts are ascertained at the time of admission, how far irregularities are tolerated, and how these irregularities are administered. In short, the whole problem of admissions should be exposed to the light of unrelenting publicity. There can be very little doubt that one of the most serious difficulties in transferring students from normal schools to colleges or universities arises directly out of the irregularity of admissions. It is not here argued that admission requirements should be of one sort or the other, but it is argued that they should be clearly defined.

Geographical studies should emphasize academic matters.—Further information about the student body which is valuable, although not so valuable as that relating to admissions, is the information regarding geographical distribution. This is important as showing the 15607°—16 9

tange of influence of the institution. This study of geographical distribution can be made academically the more productive if a study is made of the high schools and other institutions with which the normal school comes into contact. Thus, if a normal school draws its students from a region liberally supplied with standard high schools, its attitude toward secondary courses within the walls of the normal school should be very different from that of an institution drawing its students from a region in which there are no standard high schools. The whole problem of standardizing high schools is thus seen to be one with which the normal schools should concern themselves. Up to this time normal schools have been satisfied to leave the high schools to the supervision of colleges. In no less degree is it important that normal schools should study neighboring colleges. The time is rapidly passing when communities will support rival institutions of higher education. Economy dictates that there be clearness of definition in dealing with colleges. It is not surprising that up to this time normal schools have been out of contact with colleges, for the normal schools have been different in organization and support from the colleges. In recent years, however, the differentiating characteristics have been more and more eclipsed by those common purposes and modes of operation which have grown up in all higher institutions. Normal schools in some quarters are demanding admission to organizations to which they have not up to this time been admitted. The normal schools undoubtedly have a fair case, but they can be fully recognized only when they define themselves. Like all late comers, they will have to make their case; no one is going to do the work for them. It is urgently recommended, accordingly, that a geographical study be made, emphasizing the academic relations which the geographical surroundings impose on the school.

Other tables showing the ages, sex, and rate of progress through the normal-school classes would be most illuminating.

Studies of faculty should be detailed and explicit.—A second general line of information which should be supplied relates to the faculty. The faculty should be described in detail with reference to its training, experience, present activities, and literary or scientific productivity. In earlier chapters comment has been made on the relatively small number of faculty members with academic degrees, when normal schools are contrasted with universities and colleges. There are doubtless other compensating facts in many cases, but at present these facts are inaccessible. Furthermore, there is a widespread skepticism on the part of colleges and universities with regard to the qualifications of normal faculties. Normal schools can not afford to ignore this skepticism or remain silent with regard to the requirements that are set up when new members of the faculties are being chosen. The facts should be brought out. Either each member of the faculty should be fully described or tables should be presented showing training and experience.

What does the faculty do besides teaching?—Productivity is one of the surest signs of intellectual vitality and strength. This productivity takes the form at times of scientific or literary output. At other times productivity means work on committees or lectures in extension courses or at teachers' meetings. There is on the part of many practical school people a fine scorn for research, it being held by them to be a mark of undue absorption in abstractions when a man carries on investigations. The answer to those who criticize research is that research is at present one of the best-defined evidences of intellectual vigor. Doubtless there is great intellectual vigor exhibited in other ways. It is legitimate to ask that the normal school bring out this fact in defining the activities of its faculty. If the best members of each normal school faculty could be defined in such a way that the educational profession at large could know what activities are legitimate and demanded, there would perhaps arise a new professional class superior to the research professor now so eagerly sought in higher institutions of learning. In the meantime one notes that the undefined class of normal-school teachers does not produce so much useful general intellectual material as ought to be expected. One would naturally expect textbooks and courses of study and new methods and carefully evaluated descriptions of school work issuing from normal schools. The fact is that very little material of this type comes from such sources. Furthermore, what does come is not clearly exhibited, so as to become a professional ideal. It is recommended that lists of outside activities be published.

Studies of faculty activities will lead to better conditions for productive work.—It was pointed out in an earlier chapter that the teaching programs of members of normal-school faculties are longer than the programs of faculties in other higher institutions. The policy of each normal school in this matter of hours of work should be clearly set forth. The community has of late been much interested in criticisms passed upon higher institutions because of the supposed delinquency of university professors. There can be no doubt that the normal school ought as a public institution to concern itself in this problem of defining the .duties of an academic servant of the community. The failure of the public and of higher institutions to define clearly the legitimate demands in this matter affects the intellectual life of all grades of schools. No one knows how to frame demands which may be properly imposed on faculty members. Often a normal-school president does not know how much professional study goes with any of the positions to which he appoints. Members of

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