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the course is seriously complicated. Tables showing the kind of students admitted to certain courses, the emphasis which is laid in the natural course of election upon certain parts of the work in the normal school, and a clear statement of the registration in all of the required work would give a view of the distribution of the student body which it is very desirable to have.

Courses for mature students.—Furthermore, it is also important in estimating the work of the normal school to draw a sharp distinction between those students who are preparing to teach for the first time and those who are preparing in a larger way to increase their professional usefulness. In general it may be said that the summer school, or the summer quarter of the normal school, is very different in its character from the regular quarters, and throughout the year there are students who are taking courses of an advanced type because they wish to become supervisors rather than because they wish to enter the profession for the first time. A distribution of students throughout the year and a distribution of the students with reference to the ends which they wish to achieve through graduation should be made in such a way that one who examines the registration of a normal school shall distinguish between these different types of students and their length of residence during the year.

Problem of costs.—The period during which a student remains in the normal school is very important in determining the cost of normalschool instruction. It is desirable that every community should know what it costs per capita to educate students in any public institution. At the present time it is almost impossible, as indicated in an earlier chapter, to determine from the statistics of registration how many students are present in a normal school at any given time. The average attendance or the attendance for each month should be given in such a clear-cut way that it Mill be possible to determine what the actual instructorial activities of the institution are. A large summer quarter does not legitimately represent the actual work of an institution. On the other hand, there can be no doubt at all that the constituency -which comes to normal schools during the summer is very important in determining the character of work that is done in the schools around that normal school.

Clearness in these matters is all that should be required. It is not necessary to lay down any rule, and there should be no effort to restrict the activity of a normal school in dealing with the different types of students which come to it. But it is desirable that these different types should be clearly defined.

Distribution of graduates.—Finally, a normal school should inform itself, and should inform the State which it serves, definitely with regard to the distribution of its graduates. The first question which here arises is the question of distribution to elementary or secondary schools. In the second place, the question immediately arises whether these normal-school graduates go into city schools or into rural schools. A clear statement on these matters would do much to determine the policy of the State with regard to appropriations and with regard to the maintenance of normal schools. There can be no doubt at all that in the majority of cases graduates of normal schools go to those city systems which are much better qualified to provide themselves with experienced teachers than are rural districts; and there can be no doubt at all that the number of graduates of normal schools who go into high schools constitutes a very genuine problem of public policy. In some quarters there are small high schools which can not draw their staff from the neighboring State universities. The normal schools are here called upon to perform a very genuine service to the community. To what extent this service is demanded we do not at the present time know, and we shall not know until definite statements can be made of the actual disposition of graduates of our normal schools.

The problem of the relation of normal schools to high-school training classes appears also at this point, for if the normal school can not supply the teachers necessary for rural districts, other means will have to be devised for the training of teachers. The whole problem of an adequate supply for the State, therefore, connects itself with this investigation of the disposition of the graduates.

Some diagrams of geographical distribution ought to be given, but here, as in an earlier instance, it is important to keep in mind the fact that an academic distribution is of more significance than the merely geographical distribution. "What kind of schools these graduates serve is a much more important question to raise and answer than the mere question of the geographical distribution in terms of miles away from the institution that trains them. Tables of this sort should be clearly presented in the reports of the normal school.

Standardization is an elaborate process and may be slow.—The recommendations which have been made in the foregoing paragraphs call for a number of elaborate studies, and it will doubtless be objected by those who are in charge of the normal schools that it is not easily possible to supply the information which is here demanded. It will especially be objected that to supply all of this information in a single report would require a devotion on the part of the president and faculty of a normal school to investigation which is altogether out of proportion to their leisure and to the demands which are made upon them for routine work. It must be admitted immediately that an effort on the part of any given normal school to answer all of these questions in one year would entail a great amount of labor. It is the meaning of the authors of this monograph that the labor would be amply repaid in the establishment of general confidence in the administration of the school and in the classification that would come as a result of all of these investigations of all of the relations of the institution and of the student body. But if the recommendations can not all of them be acted upon at once, it is still urged that a gradual accumulation of all of these types of information is certainly possible. If one or two of the tables above recommended coidd be prepared in a given year and could be inserted in the catalogue of the normal school, and if the practice of collecting such information became general, comparison would immediately arise which would stimulate further investigations and would help to secure the necessary appropriations from legislatures to carry on these investigations on a larger scale. The experience of every State has, in recent years, made it clear that there is public demand for a clearer definition of these institutions. The necessity of maintaining relationships with other institutions has been dwelt upon again and again in this report, and the desirability of supplying a larger body of teachers is becoming one of the impressive problems of modern educational life.

Lack of uniformity is advantageous if this is supplemented by careful scientific studies.—The United States does less to train its teachers than any other great civilized nation, and there is less uniformity in the treatment of requirements for the schools than in any other nation. To be sure, these variations in organization and this lack of system bring certain advantages and give the school system of the United States a certain flexibility which other systems do not exhibit, but there is no reason why with the advantages of flexibility there should not come a clear definition of purposes and a clear account of the actual achievements of such system as we have. The recommendations made in this chapter are made with a view to securing this type of information. Flexibility which is of a thoroughly self-conscious type is greatly to be desired. Flexibility which is controlled by accidents and by chance requirements in particular localities and is not understood and is not clearly defined in any general way is a disadvantage rather than an advantage, and all of the recommendations which have been made in these paragraphs aim to eliminate so far as possible the purely accidental character of normal-school organization.


[note.—With the exceptions Indicated, the documents named below will be sent free of charge upon application to the Commissioner of Education, Washington, D. C. Those marked with an asterisk (») are no longer available for free distribution, but may be had of the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C, upon payment of the price staled. Remittances should be made In coin, currency, or money order. Stamps are not accepted.]

*A teachers' professional library. Classified list of 100 titles. 5 cts. (Bulletin, 1909,

no. 8.) *A course of study for the preparation of rural school-teachers. F. Mutchler and W. J.

Craig. 5 cts. (Bulletin, 1912, no. 1.) • Training courses for rural teachers. A. C. Monaban and R. II. Wright. 5 cts. (Bulletin, 1913, no. 2.) •The training of teachers In England, Scotland, and Germany. C. H. Judd. 10 cts.

(Bulletin, 1914, no. 35. ) City training schools for teachers. F. A. Manny. (Bulletin, 1914, no. 47.) Efficiency and preparation of rural school-teachers. H. W. Foght. (Bulletin, 1914,

no. 49.) The training of elementary school-teachers in mathematics. I. L. Kandel. (Bulletin,

1915, no. 39.) Normal schools. (Statistics.) Annual Report, 1914, vol. 2, chap. 6. (Available as a

separate publication.) The training of teachers. S. C. Tarker. Annual Report, 1915, vol. 1, chap. 7. (Available

as a separate publication.)



Academic high-school departments, tendency to expand, 100.

Administrative control, 32-46.

Agriculture, course for special teachers, 125.

Boards of control (State), 34-36; appointment, tenure and size, 34-35; qualifications
of members, 35-36; value of types, 36-40.

Bohannon, E. W., on best type of normal control, 38.

California State Normal, Los Angeles, statistics of graduation, 108.

Cape Girardeau, Mo., course in agriculture, 125.

Carnegie Foundation, and teacher-training, 10-12.

Charleston, 111., practice teaching, 95.

Chico, Cal., course of study, 92.

Claxton, P. P., letter of transmittal, 5.

College credit, 82-83.

Colleges and normal schools, comparison of students, 13-14; statistical comparison,

Colleges and universities, effect of parallel development of departments of educa-
tion, 8-9.

Commercial education, 124.

Community practice facilities, 52-55.

Costs, normal school, 75-78.

Courses of study, agriculture, 125; commercial education, 124; high-school graduates,
79-86; home economics, 122-123; manual training, 122; Missouri, 119; New York,
116-117; Stout Institute, Wis., 114-115; trades, 124-125; training school, 89-94.
See also Standardization.

Critic teachers, 88-89.

Degree courses, three-year, discredit normal schools, 104; four-year for elementary
teachers, 103-104.

Degrees, advanced, held by members of faculties of normal schools, 17.

De Kalb, 111., course of study, 90-91; practice teaching, 49; salaries of principal
officers, 72.

Departments of education, colleges and universities, effect of parallel develop-
ment, 8-9.

Directors, salaries, 88.

Domestic education, 122-123.

Efficiency, general demand for, 9.

Electives, 83-84, 134-135.

Emporia, practice teaching, 96.

Endowment, productive, 19-20.

Faculties, 17-18, 65-74.

Felmley, David, on best type of normal control, 38-39.

Finegan, T. E., on local control, 34.

Foght, H. W., on training of rural teachers, 97.

Gemmill, W. H., on best type of normal-school control, 37.

Graduates, distribution, 135-136.

Graduates and students, 56-64.

Green, J. M., on best type of normal-school control, 36.

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