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Academic training of faculties.—The returns for both colleges and normal schools should show how many members of the faculties have advanced degrees. Table 2 gives the results for 63 colleges and universities on the approved list of the association for 1914 and 32 of the normal schools indicated in Table 1. The second column reports for the doctor's degree held by college faculties; the third column for the master's degree held by college faculties; the fourth and fifth columns for the normal faculties and the degrees of doctor and master, respectively. Thus the second column should be read as follows: There are two colleges which have less than 9 per cent of their faculty holding the doctor's degree. There are 11 institutions that have between 10 and 19 per cent, 16 that have between 20 and 29 per cent, and so on. The third column of the same table should be read as follows: There is 1 institution that has less than 9 per cent of its faculty with the master's degree; there is 1 institution that has between 10 and 19 per cent, and so on.
Table 2.—Advanced degrees held by members of faculties.
Average per cent of doctors 34
Average per cent of masters 67
For normal schools:
Average per cent of doctors 7
Average per cent of masters 31
This table makes it very clear that the academic qualification of normal faculties is very different from that of faculties of even the small colleges. It is not argued that university degrees should be required, but it is evident that normal schools must give heed to this sharp distinction when discussing the admission of their students to college with full credit for normal courses.
Sizes of normal faculties less than those of universities, but above those of most small colleges.—Table 3 shows the sizes of faculties, indicating the gross membership of these faculties. The table distributes the institutions according to the increasing size of the faculties:
Table 3.—Distribution of institutions according to size of faculty.
This table shows that the normal school is to be classified as belonging, in general, with the small college in point of size. It is not equipped for instruction as is the great university. A few of the normal schools have reached the level of large colleges, as shown by the fact that one has a faculty of between 90 and 99, two between GO and 69.
Normal-school faculties work many hours.—Table 3A, taken in connection with Table 3, reveals a fundamental difference in policy regarding the hours of service expected of members of the faculty. Each institution was asked to report the number of members of the faculty who have more than 18 hours a week of teaching. In the normal schools it is practically universal. Among the colleges and universities there are 30 which report no members of the faculty w?ho work 18 hours. Where the colleges and universities report more than 18 hours, they usually qualify the report by stating that it is only officers in charge of shops or laboratories who have the long hours. In several normal schools all officers have the long hours.
Table 3A.—Distribution of institutions showing number of officers who teach
over J8 hours per week.
The table regarding hours of work is illuminating. It shows, in the first place, why candidates for teaching positions prefer to get into colleges. The hours of work in normal schools are much longer. In the second place, this table explains in large measure why the faculties of normal schools can not and do not carry on as much productive work. If normal schools are to help teachers in service to prepare courses of study and to test their results, they must have more leisure than they now have.
Salaries are good.—The average salaries paid to members of the faculty are set forth in Table 4.
Table 4.—Average salaries in North Central colleges and normal schools.
Material resources.—In general, as indicated in the table on average salaries, the material resources of the normal schools are very good. Direct comparison of capital is difficult, because most colleges depend on private endowments, while normal schools are supported by legislative grants. The following tables (Tables 5 and 6) give the facts, however, in a form which shows the satisfactory financing of normal schools. Table 5 shows the distribution of endowed institutions in the North Central States. This table does not include any normal school, but establishes a basis of comparison. The income from an endowment of $250,000 is not likely to exceed $15,000. The college is supported further, as the normal school is not, by tuition fees. All told, however, there are many colleges which have a gross income of less than $50,000.
Table 5.—Productive endowment of colleges and endowed universities.
Table 6 compares the North Central normal schools with similarly located State institutions. Here it should be noted that there are usually several normal schools in a State, so that the aggregate expenditure on normal schools, when all normal institutions are considered, is much greater than the figures in Table G would at first sight indicate:
Table 6.—Annual income of State-supported institutions in North Central States.
Amount of income.
Number of courses.—Table 7 shows how many courses are given in a year by the approved universities and colleges of the North Central Association and by the normal schools. The magnitude of the normal schools is made evident by this table.
Table 7.—Number of courses given annually.
Ratio of faculty members to number of students.—One other item of internal organization may "be made a subject of comment. The ratio of faculty members to students is about the same in normal schools and colleges, as shown by Table 8. The organization of normal schools is seen to be like in kind to that of the colleges.
Tabe 8.—Distribution of institutions according to ratio of faculty members to
Summarizing this comparative study, it may be said that in material resources, in number of courses, and in ratio of faculty to students, normal schools are directly comparable to selected lists of universities and colleges. In training of the faculty and in the tasks imposed on faculty members, normal schools suffer seriously in comparison to colleges.