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require high-school graduation for admission to all courses. Every teacher in the common schools should be a high-school graduate, with at least two years of professional training in addition to his high-school work, and that ideal is being rapidly approached, more rapidly than many may realize.

Louisiana.—Another good example of this progressive elimination of students of high-school grade from the State normal schools is found in the report of the Louisiana State Normal School for 1914 (p. 11). It reads as follows:

Prior to the opening of the summer quarter in 1911, the requirement for admission to the Normal School was the completion of the seventh grade of the public schools. At that time the course was advanced a half year. In June, 1912, the standard was raised another half year, bringing the requirement for admission up to the completion of the eighth grade or first high-school year. In December, 1913, another advance of a half year was made. Therefore, during the last three years, the normal course of study has been raised by one and onehalf years of public-school work. On June 1, 1914, another advancement of a half year will be made. * * *

The effects of this raise in standard are twofold, to wit:

1. Better training of students, arising from a more advanced grade of pupils and an emphasis on more advanced subjects of instruction. The changes have made possible the introduction of higher courses in mathematics, the languages, and all the sciences; and the relegation to the lower terms of many branches of high-school grade which were formerly taught in the most advanced classes.

2. An arrest in the numerical growth of the student body, a condition that was anticipated. The effect in this direction of advancing the standard of curriculum is revealed by the fact that the enrollment in the three lowest terms (those that have been eliminated) was 161 during the spring term of 1911.

Virginia.—Similarly in the report of the State superintendent of Virginia for 1911-12 appears the following statement in the report of the president of the normal school at Farmville (p. 442):

The marked improvement in the rural schools has, to a great extent, changed the personnel of the new students who enter each year. Instead of being forced, as in the past, to offer a year of review work in the public-school branches, we are now able to enter practically all our students not lower than the second year of the academic course. The professional courses, open to graduates of approved three and four year high schools, enrolled a larger number than ever before.

Massachusetts and Rhode Island admit only high-school graduates.—As examples of States that have completed the process of eliminating high-school students there are the normal schools of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, which have reached the point where they are open only to high-school graduates. In discussing this fact Commissioner Snedden, of Massachusetts, says in his report for 1912-13 (pp. 23-24):

The requirements for admission to the normal school have long constituted a serious problem. When students were received from the elementary schools, as was once the case, the normal-school courses were, as a result, mainly academic, rather than professional, in character. Massachusetts was one of the first States to raise the standards of admission to normal schools by requiring high-school graduation as a condition for entrance.

Graduates of high schools on the approved list of the New England College Entrance Certificate Board, or of high schools approved by the board of education, are now admitted to the normal schools on certification. Applicants not holding certificates are required to take an examination, the questions for which are prepared under the direction of the board. Through this inspection and the accompanying testing of the work of the smaller high schools, the board has been able to raise to some extent the standards of high-school instruction throughout the State.

High-school graduates must also pass entrance examinations in elementary school subjects in Rhode Island.—The Rhode Island Normal School report for 1913 gives a general discussion of the raising of standards in order to secure more effective results from available facilities in the training of teachers for the State (p. 14). The report states that as early as 1906 steps were taken to eliminate high-school students in order to make room for distinctively normal students. In 1913 the standards were further raised by establishing for high-school graduates a series of entrance examinations in the elementary-school subjects as described in the following paragraph (p. 25): .

By a recent vote of the trustees it has boon determined that all students entering the Rhode Island Normal School hereafter shall be given a series of tests in the elementary subjects, and that serious failure in two or more of these subjects will disqualify for admission. All courses at this school will presuppose a good working knowledge of the essentials. Reviews in these elementary subjects should, therefore, be taken in the high schools rather than in the Normal School.

Tests will be given in the following subjects:

In arithmetic, for accuracy and facility in the use of numbers, including simple fractions, decimals, and percentage, and for correct solution of the ordinary problems required of children in elementary schools.

In English, for command of correct and clear English and for knowledge of the elements of grammar.

In history, for the main facts in the history of Rhode Island and of the United States, and a general ability to give clear and logical answers.

In geography, for a general understanding of common-school geography, including location, physical features, climate, industries, and commerce.

In drawing, for nature and object drawing, mechanical drawing, design, and history of art, as indicated in the requirements for this subject.

These examinations will not be severe. They will be designed to test general ability, accuracy of thought, and logical presentation of material, rather than mere memory of fact.

The examinations for admission in September may be taken either in June or in September, on the specified dates. For admission in January they may be taken in June, September, or Junuary. Entrance examinations will not be given at any later dates than those indicated. Students desiring admission must therefore present themselves at one of these regular examinations.

Chart of advancing standards in Rhode Island.—The accompanying chart reproduced from page 24 of the 1913 Rhode Island report shows the change in the quality of the students registered in the normal school. It appears that in 1898 less than half of the students (100 from a total of about 220) were taking the full normal course for high-school graduates. In 1913 practically all of the students were enrolled in this course.

General contrast shown.—The contrast between the conditions described in Idaho, Louisiana, and Virginia, on the one hand, and Massachusetts and Khode Island, on the other, is a contrast between relatively undeveloped educational situations and highly developed


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urban educational situations. As an intermediate example the normal schools of Illinois may be cited.

Illinois represents transition in eliminating high-school students.— In Illinois some of the normal schools enroll a large number of highschool students, while at least one, namely, the De Kalb Normal School, distinctly discourages students of this type from enrolling.

In the 1912 report of the trustees of the De Kalh school we find the situation discussed as follows (p. 5):

The management has not deemed it wise to attach a high-school department to the normal school. What is known as the "Lindly" law requires the State normal schools to furnish secondary instruction to a certain class of students. The number coming to this school is small, as the policy of advising such students to seek high-school instruction near enough to their homes to permit them to be with their parents has been followed. When they have decided to enter the school, however, their legal rights have been secured to them, but the instruction has been so managed as to prevent any additions to the faculty on their account.

On the other hand, a large number of students of high-school grade are registered in the normal school at Charleston, 111., which serves a part of the State in which high schools are not so well developed as near De Kalb.

Higher professional requirements for certificates increase proportion of students of college rank.—That the laws governing the certificating of teachers in a given State may have a very large influence in determining the number and grade of the students in the normal schools of the State is shown by the example of Ohio, which has already been mentioned in an earlier chapter (p. 31).

North Dakota.—Another example occurs in the report of the State superintendent of North Dakota for 1910-12, where the conditions in that State are referred to in the following quotation from the report of the normal school at Mayville (p. 216) :,

There have as yet been no graduates from either the five-year course for eighth-grade graduates or the two-year course for high-school graduates. The chief reason Is that the certification laws of the State do not set a value upon graduation from these advanced courses which is enough higher than that set upon graduation from the four-year and one-year elementary courses to make students desire to take them.

Minnesota.—The increase in the proportion of students taking the courses for high-school graduates which results from increasing the requirements for teachers' certificates is well illustrated in the report of the State superintendent of Minnesota for 1911-12. On page 104 the president of the Winona Normal School writes as follows:

The two years here reported measure the immediate effect of the amended statute (1909) limiting the value of elementary diplomas to three years without indorsement. During the last two years preceding the passage of the law the per cent of graduates from the advanced course was 42. For the first full two years since the change the per cent in the advanced course is 72.

Similarly the president of the normal school at Duluth writes as follows (p. Ill):

The percentage of high-school graduates enrolled and of students electing the advanced courses is larger than ever before. It seems probable that threefourths to four-fifths of the students entering this school hereafter will be high-school graduates and that practically all will elect the work of the advanced courses.

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Combined influence of developing high schools and advancing requirements for certificates.—It is quite evident from the above discussion that the proportion of high-school students in the State normal schools of a community depends to a large extent on the development of high schools in the State and the scheme of certificating teachers. As long as high schools are scarce, pupils who desire work beyond the elementary school will usually be accommodated in the normal schools. As high schools develop, the proportion of such students in the normal schools may decrease. Unless the State places a premium, however, on high-school graduates taking advanced normal courses, by granting them superior teachers' certificates, the number of such students in normal schools may not increase rapidly. Where such a situation exists (i. e., no certificating premium) normal-school presidents may continue to accept many high-school students even when the high schools of the community are adequate to take care of them. As soon, however, as a good certification law is passed in such a State, so as to give adequate stimulus to highschool graduates to take a two-year normal course, the normal schools will be so crowded with these advanced students that the normal schools will probably have to get rid of the high-school students in order to accommodate the candidates for graduation in the advanced courses.

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