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No. 60. Statistics of State universities and other institutions of higher education partially supported by the State, 1912-13.

1914. ♦No. 2. Compulsory school attendance. 15cts.

*No. 3. Monthly record of current educational publications, February, 1914. 5 cts.
*No. 4. The school and the start in life. Meyer Bloomfield. 15 cts.

No. 5. The folk high schools of Denmark.- L. L. Friend.
*No. 6. Kindergartens in the United States. 20 cts.

*No. 7. Monthly record of current educational publications, March, 1914. 5 cts.

*No. 8. The Massachusetts home-project plan of vocational agricultural education. R.W. Stimson. 15 cts.
No. 9. Monthly record of current educational publications, April, 1914.

No. 10. Physical growth and school progress. B. T. Baldwin.
*No. 11. Monthly record of current educational publications, May, 1914. 5 cts.

No. 12. Rural schoolhouses and grounds. F. B. Dresslar.

No. 13. Present status of drawing and art in the elementary and secondary schools of the United States.
Royal B. Farnum.
♦No. 14. Vocational guidance. 10 cts.
♦No. 15. Monthly record of current educational publications. Index. 5 cts.

No. 16. The tangible rewards of teaching. James C. Boykin and Roberta Kin. ."..

No. 17. Sanitary survey ol the schools of Orange County, Va. Roy K. Flanneyjn

No. 18. Tho public school system of Gary, Ind. William P. Burris.

No. 19. University extension in the United States. Louis E. Reber.

No. 20. The rural school and hookworm disease. J. A. Ferrell.
♦No. 21. Monthly record of current educational publications, September, 1914. ,

No. 22. The Danish folk high schools. H. W. Foght.

No. 23. Some trado schools in Europe. Frank L. Glynn.
♦No. 24. Danish elementary rural schools. H. W. Foght. 10 cts.

No. 25. Important features in rural school improvement. W. T. Hodgos.

No. 26. Monthly report of current educational publications, October, 1914.
♦No. 27. Agricultural teaching. 15 cts.

No. 28. Tho Montessori method and the kindargarten. Elizabeth Harrison.

No. 29. The kindergarten in benevolent institutions.

No. 30. Consolidation of rural schools and transportation of pupils at public
♦No. 31. Report on the work of the Bureau of Education for the natives of Ala

No. 32. Bibliography of the relation of secondary schools to highor education.
♦No. 33. Music in the public schools. Will Earhart. 10 cts.

No. 34. Library instruction in universities, colleges, and normal schools. Hen
♦No. 35. The training of teachers in England, Scotland, and Germany. Charle

No. 36. Education for the home—Part I. General statement. B. R. Andrews.

No. 37. Education for the home—Part II. State legislation, schools, agencies. B. R. Andrews.

No. 38. Education for the home—Part III. Colleges and universities. B. R. Andrews.

No. 39. Education for the home—Part IV. Bibliography, list of schools. B. R. Andrews.

No. 40. Care of the health of boys in Girard College, Philadelphia, Pa.
♦No. 41. Monthly record of current educational publications, November, 1914. 5 cts.
♦No. 42. Monthly record of current educational publications, December, 1914. 5 cts.
♦No. 43. Educational directory, 1914-15. 20 cts.

No. 44. County-unit organization for the administration of rural schools. A. C. Monahan.
♦No. 45. Curricula in mathematics. J. C. Brown. 10 cts.
♦No. 46. School savings banks. Mrs. Sara L. Oberholtzer. 5 cts.

No. 47. City training schools for teachers. Frank A. Manny.

No. 48. Tho educational museum of the St. Louis public schools. C. G. Rathman.

No. 49. Efficiency and preparation of rural-school teachers. H. W. Foght.

No. 50. Statistics of State universities and State colleges.

1915.

♦No. 1. Cooking in the vocational school. Iris P. O'Leary. 5 cts.

No. 2. Monthly reeoJH of current educational publications, January, 1915.
♦No. 3. Monthly record of current educational publications, February, 1915. 5 cts.

No. 4. The health of school children. Wr. H. Heck.

No. 5. Organization of State departments of education. A. C. Monahan.
♦No. 6. A study of the colleges and high schools in the North Central Association. 15 cts.

No. 7. Accredited secondary schools in the United States. Samuel P. Capen.

No. 8. Present status of the honor system in colleges and universities. Bird T. Baldwin.

No. 9. Monthly record of current educational publications, March, 1915.
♦No. 10. Monthly record of current educational publications, April, 1915. 5 cts.
No. 11. A statistical study of tho public-school systems of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Nor-
man Frost.
No. 12. History of public-scb.ol education in Alabama. Stephen B. Weeks.
No. 13. The sehoolhouse as t>ie polling place. E. J. Ward.
*No. 14. Mont; rrent educational publications, May, 1915. 5 cts.

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*No. 15. Moiijii., lout.i.u. current educational publications. Index, February, 1914-January, 1915. 5 cts.
*No. 16. Monthly record of current educational publications, June, 1915. 5 cts.
No. 17. Civic education in elementary schools as illustrated in Indianapolis. A. W. Dunn.
No. 18. Legal education in Great Britain. H, S. Richards.
*No. 20. The"' ystem of Minnesota, n. W. Foght. 20 cts.

No. 21. Schoolnouse sanitation. William A. Cook.

No. 22. State versus local control of elementary education. T. L. MacDowell.
No. 23. The teaching of community civics.

No. 24. Adjustment bf ween kindergarten and first grade. Luella A. Palmer.
No. 25. Public, societ , and school libraries.
No. 26. Secondary schools in tho States of Central America, South America, and the West Indies. Anna

T. Smith.
No. 27. Opportunities for foreign students at colleges and universities in the United States. Samuel P.

Capen. N" 28. The extension of public education. Clarence A. Perry. Jvo. *.- . "!. p*«M;,~i and the parental school. James S. Hiatt.

•n; o'C'i ication for 1911-12.

i .' ly of the salaries of teachers and school officers.
.;..,»• of Ontario. H. W. Foght.
of vur- onal education in Germany. George E. Myers.

current educational publications, September, 1915 . fcts.
: -: e lower and middle commercial and industrial schools. E. H. Taylor.
b ■«'■ .d State uniformity. A. C. Monahan.
;■ itional surveys. James Mahoney.
d the municipality.

unentary-school teachers in mathematics. I. L. Kandel.
current educational publications, October, 1915.
•extension records. Clarence A. Perry. 5 cts.
;he teacher with the class. James Mahoney.
tory, 1915-16.
Ir ■- ition in the smaller cities. W. S. Deffenbaugh.
. ai. le's high school. Martin Hegland.

f current educational publications, November, 1915.
i if ■ ws relating to public education. Hood, Weeks, and Ford,
i.-"-' ■ j «'. >rk of tho Bureau of Education for the natives of Alaska, 1913-14.

of current educational publications, December, 1915. Nu. .„. „.„..•! jl children. W. II. Heck.

1916.

No. 1. Education exhibits at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. W. Carson Ryan, jr.

No. 2. Agricultural and rural education at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. H. W. Foght.

No. 3. Placement of children in the elementary grades. K.J.Hoke.

No. 4. Monthly record of current educational publications, January, 1916.

No. 5. Kindergarten training schools.

No. 6. Statistics of State universities and State colleges, 1915.

No. 7. Monthly record of current educational publications, February, 1916.

No. 8. Reorganization of the public-school system. F. F. Bunker.

No. 9. Monthly record of current educational publications, March, 1916.

No. 10. Needed changes in secondary education. Charles W. Eliot and Ernesto Nelson.

No. 11. Monthly record of current educational publications, April, 1916.

No. 12. Problems involved in standardizing State normal schools. C. H. Judd and S. C. Parker.

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fij/ U S BUREAU OF EDUCATION

BULLETIN, 1916, No. 14

STATE PENSION SYSTEMS FOR PUBLIC-SCHOOL TEACHERS

PREPARED FOR THE COMMITTEE ON

TEACHERS' SALARIES. PENSIONS. AND TENURE OF

THE NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION

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ADDITIONAL COPIES

OF THIS PUBLICATION HAY BE PROCURED FROM

THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS

GOVERNMENT PRINTIN'O. OFFICE

WASHINGTON, I>. C.

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10 CENTS PER COPY

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J President of Swarthmore College and Chairman Committee on Salaries, Tenure, and Pensions, National Education Association.

Since the appointment of the committee on salaries, tenure, and . pensions in October of 1911 there have been published by the com. mittec, or by the United States Bureau of Education in cooperation with it, about 1,000 pages of literature, chiefly on teachers' salaries. The report of January, 1913, on teachers' salaries and cost of living, was an extensive study of economic conditions of teachers in four representative cities in different parts of the country—namely, Cincinnati, New Haven, Atlanta, and Denver. Bulletin of the Bureau of Education, 1014, No. 16, "The Tangible Rewards of Teaching," was a detailed statement of salaries paid to the several classes of teachers and school officers in different parts of the United States. Bulletin, 1915, No. 31, of the Bureau of Education was a comparative study of salaries of teachers and school officers. The study of these three publications will make clear to any impartial and enlightened observer that salaries of teachers in the United States are not large enough to provide properly for the numerous financial demands that their work makes upon them. (See "Teachers' Salaries and Cost of Living," pp. 234-235.) The overwhelming consensus of view of intelligent people in all walks of life who are familiar with present conditions in the United States is that not only must salaries be increased, but some kind of a retiring allowance in the form of a pension or annuity must be provided for all public school-teachers if we are to have a profession of teaching.

The studies thus far made naturally led the committee to the study of pensions. The subject is both a scientific and a social question. Many pension systems have failed because they had no sound economic basis. A system may have a sound economic basis and not be in a form acceptable to those who participate in it. The committee has brought experts, who have worked out the scientific basis on sound economic grounds, and the teacher and public-school officer together in the hope that we may have better pension legislation,

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