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The committee also adopted a resolution that an additional bulletin on kindergarten training be prepared in the near future, which should contain several suggested courses, such as:

A two-year course for public normal schools.

A two-year course for private normal schools.

A three-year kindergarten course.

A three-year kindergarten-primary course.

A college kindergarten course.

A kindergarten and home-making course.

TWO-YEAR COURSE IN DETAIL.

Length.—36 weeks a year, 5 days a week, 4 periods a day, 45 to 50 minutes a period. Total number of periods, 1,440.

If it is desired to state this in terms of credits, it would be as follows:

1,440 hours—20 credits. A whole credit—72 hours' work. A half credit—36 hours' work. A quarter credit—18 hours' work. It should be noted that some universities will credit nothing under 36 hours.

In accordance with paragraph 7 above (p. 52), it has been agreed that the term "student teaching" shall be used to indicate practice work; "kindergarten manual activities," gifts and occupations; and "kindergarten curriculum," program work.

Outline Of Course.

SECTION 1. STUDENT TEACHING AND OBSERVATION.

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Section 1. Student teaching and observation.—While the observation is listed separately in order that the number of hours may be readily seen, it is the intention that it shall be given in connection with some other subject—child study, psychology, Mother Play, primary methods or kindergarten subjects—thus giving it more definite purpose. The student teaching in the kindergarten is planned for the latter part of the first year and the first part of the second year. This, in the opinion of the committee, is the time when it will be the most valuable, but it might be placed altogether in the second year, and under some conditions this will be necessary.

The student should spend at least two hours, preferably the entire morning, in the schoolroom and should begin actual teaching as soon as possible. During the 36 weeks she should have opportunity to teach each of the subjects and to direct the entire kindergarten. All student teaching should be carefully supervised by the critic teacher.

The committee recognizes that in many training schools it may be difficult or impossible to provide for this amount of student teaching, but it recommends it, believing that this amount will provide the best training.

Section 2. General education.—Under this head are placed those subjects that interpret the general foundations of teaching—principles of education, educational psychology and child study, and the history of education.

The committee would like to give special importance to the courses in psychology and child study, to which it is suggested the study of the Mother Play book should be related. The subject, however, will have little significance in the mind of the student unless it is accompanied by actual observation of children and opportunities for some intimate companionship with them. In the history of education it is suggested that only an introduction to the subject be given, rather than extended study, as it is work that can be carried so far that it is more suitable for graduate study when given intensively.

The major part of the course should be spent on the history of the modern period of education as developed in Europe and America.

Section S. Kindergarten education.—Kindergarten education includes the special professional subjects that are practical, as well as those that are theoretical. The amount of time given to these subjects will no doubt vary in different schools, and it is well that it should do so. Uniformity in detail would be something to be deplored, but the proportion suggested by the committee is on the basis of sufficient actual experience in the doing of the practical activities to give power, variety, and familiarity. Paralleling or following these courses a sufficient proportion of theory is planned to reinforce these with a broad outlook. There is also planned a study of Froebel's books and of those who have interpreted him or have written material which gives parallel views. There is freedom here for a deeper study of the Mother Play, so that the book may be used not only as an interpretation of children's activities in relation to child study, but also as an expression of the philosophy underlying the system of training (see MacVannel, Teachers College Record).

Section 4- Related professional subjects.—The committee does not desire in a brief outline like this to indicate in much detail the work in these subjects. It offers only a few explanations and suggestions. In the arts it is suggested that the work will be broader if the subject cover two phases; first, the study for the sake of personal power and appreciation and also technique; second, its use in the applied art of teaching. Nature study is listed under the head of natural science. It should be given a thoroughly scientific foundation and must be given a thoroughly defined place. The games and physical training should, if possible, extend throughout the two years and the same double aspect of the subject should be preserved here.

It might be well if the games were given in connection with physical training; thus avoiding a scattering of subjects and indicating to the student the relation between them. It is suggested that some work for use in playgrounds might be given and a discussion and consideration of the planning, equipment, and apparatus for a playground for very young children.

The course in child and school hygiene should be made as practicable as possible, giving the genetic point of view and taking up many of the phases of social welfare work, which gives so much value to the relation between the school and the community.

With regard to primary methods, it is not the aim of the committee to give to the student training which fits her to be a primary teacher; but it is important that she should have some work which develops a sense of perspective and a little experience with children in the grade just above that which she expects to teach; so that the contrast and wider knowledge may contribute to a more intelligent development of the children of kindergarten age.

Suggested text and reference books.—The following list is compiled from 12 lists sent in by committee members. The books named are those used by the largest number.

Psychology and Child Study:

Psychology. Angell.

Psychology. James' Briefer Course.

Fundamentals of Child Study. Kirkpatrick.

The Individual in the Making. Kirkpatrick.

Growth and Education. Tyler.

Education by Plays and Games. Johnson.

Hygiene and the Child. German. General Education:

The Educational Process. Bagley.

fhe Normal Child and Primary Education. Gesell.

How We Think. Dewey.

The Child and the Curriculum. Dewey.

The School and Society. Dewey. Kindergarten Education:

The Mother Plays. Froebel.

The Education of Man. Froebel.

Pedagogics of the Kindergarten. Froebel.

Education by Development. Froebel.

Letters to a Mother. Blow.

The Kindergarten. Blow-Hill-Harrison.

Froebel's Educational Laws. J. L. Hughes.

Kindergarten education—Continued.
A Study of Child Nature. Harrison.
Experimental Studies in Kindergarten Educa-
tion. ( Teachers College Record.)
History of Education:
Brief Course in the History of Education. Mon-
roe.
Changing Conceptions of Education. Cubberly.
The Kindergarten in American Education. Voji-
dewalker.
General Subjects:
Art—

The Fine and Industrial Arts in the Element-
ary School. Sargent.
Music-
Education Through Music. Farnsworih.
Literature-
Literature in the Elementary SchooL Mc-

Clintock.
How to tell Stories. S. C. Bryant.
Nature Study-
Nature Study. Holtz.
Nature Study and Life. Hodge.

IV. IDEALS IN KINDERGAETEN TRAINING.

[Report presented by the Committee of Nineteen of the International Kindergarten Union.]

In addition to "Standards of Entrance Requirements" and "Standards for Courses of Study" that have been presented, "Standards in Ideals" underlying the courses of study may be presented as worthy of the earnest consideration of those engaged in the training of the kindergartner.

Not the kindergarten technique alone is important, but also that training for social work which will influence the home and community life of mothers and children. Special studies and lectures should be given which will assist students in the organization and conduct of mothers' clubs and parents' meetings and will enable them to become efficient social workers in their communities.

Since the kindergarten is an integral part of the whole of education, the kindergarten training school should give knowledge of the best for which the primary school stands. It should define the influence which the kindergarten principles and practices should exercise upon elementary school work.

The kindergarten agencies, the song, games, story, creative selfexpression through handwork, have become firmly established in the primary school. Too often, however, these agencies have been used without the insight into the educational principles they illustrate.

To establish organized connection between the kindergarten and the elementary grade, it is imperative that the connection be made by persons familiar with the best practice of the kindergarten and the best practice of the elementary grade, and thoroughly cognizant of the educational principles underlying these respective practices.

"The teacher is an educator, not merely an instructor."

Individual development of body, mind, and character of students should be earnestly sought, as well as the endeavor to acquire a standard course of study. Training must be given for responsibility, adaptability, efficiency in new situations, and initiative.

Homes for students have been opened in connection with a few training schools, where the work and social responsibilities are taken up as a part of the daily training for individual development of the young women.

Many training schools are applying in their work with students the kindergarten principles and methods, allowing the student to discover these rather than to take so much upon authority, as has frequently been done in the past. If students see these principles in the nature of the developing child as well as in the Froebehan books, they will recognize the value of the authority.

To develop a wise, independent judgment of values, for instance, in songs, games, stories, etc., not only in school work but outside of school hours, is an ability which students should acquire.

The development of the religious life of the students should also receive attention equal to that in any good college.

The kindergarten course, to be successful, must develop creative self-activity in the students.

In standardizing ideals, the Committee of Nineteen agree that even when certain books are read and studied by all, certain formula? with materials understood and followed, certain fixed standards of personality and scholarship attained, the real work of awakening the spirit has only begun. The spiritual significance of the work must be deepened by the elimination of all that is capricious, sentimental, and superficial.

To develop insight and impart vitality, now that the pioneer days are over, is the greatest task of the modern training school.

The following statements were presented by several members of the Committee of Nineteen at a meeting held in Cincinnati February 25, 1915, and are included in this report:

Outline Of Ideals Fundamental In Work Of Training Class.

(By Mrs. Alice H. Putnam, formerly principal of the training school of the Froebel Kindergarten Association, Chicago.) Two points of view: (a) Personal development of student as to character, and along lines of the study and love of art, science, literature, etc., as well as her capacity for homemaking. (5) Such training as shall strengthen and develop a wise and loving attitude toward children, which always reacts most favorably on the student's own personality. This must include—

(1) A true respect for child nature and study of child's individuality;

(2) Attention to the variations in child nature;

(3) Analysis of child's tendencies;

(4) Comparative study of groups of children;

(5) Some knowledge of the children's home environment;

(6) A balanced judgment of their manifestations.

All of this implies much personal contact with children while the student is in training. Theorizing and psychologizing, however good, are not sufficient. The training school should provide for concrete, though necessarily condensed, experience in all these points. This implies a training in personal responsibility, which is lacking in the average young woman recently graduated from the high school (as well as in those who come from some homes of the present day). It implies training in efficient adaptability to the situations in which the student may find herself. It implies an immediate and practical use of class study in psychology, now perhaps for the first time reduced to a working basis.

Other means of training in responsibility and efficiency lie in the homely daily duties of the kindergarten, viz, caring for ventilation and neatness of the room, oversight of the children's personal habits, laws of hygiene, etc., caring for the material and teaching the children to be responsible for it; attention to time divisions for work and play, etc.

This implies oversight by the training teacher of the student's choice of song, story, pictures, games, material selected outside of the ordinary tools of the kindergarten. She should have such comparative experience now, while she is under guidance, as will make for a wise and independent judgment of values, that she may not be led astray by all that comes to her from the press and other sources labeled '' for the kindergarten." It implies that she have a love for and some knowledge of nature's laws, in order to guide the children in their work with seeds, gardening, care of such domestic animals as may be brought to them, etc. It implies an ability to lead the child's interest in nature materials, as well as in picture, song, story, etc., to higher levels; an ability to hold him to his best, in whatever he is doing, without interfering

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