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as flexible as possible the conditions under which students may come to the university, and it proposes to set up only such requirements as seem indispensable to enable the university to continue with advantage the educational work begun in the schools. With this principle in mind the university faculty has replaced the former schedule of requirements, designating a considerable number of specific subjects In which the student must have been prepared, with a plan which, save for a requirement in English, lays emphasis not so much upon specific subject matter as upon a certain amount of concentrated and continuous work in subjects selected by the student or the school from among the standard academic subjects taught in all high schools. The quantity of the work required is specified in the paragraphs below. The quality of the work the university erpects to test by the record of the student after he comes to the university.

It is believed that sufficient flexibility has been introduced (1) to permit the schools to meet every reasonable demand of their own communities in the arrangement of their curricula, (2) to enable the student to enter college even though he decides late in his course to do so, and, at the same time, (3) to make it justifiable for the university rigidly to require of each student a full 15 units of entrance work. There will, consequently, be no admissions with condition under the new plan.

The chief features of this new program of entrance requirements, put into effect October 1,1911, follow:


Students applying for entrance to the University of Chicago present by certificate from approved schools or by examination 15 units of entrance credits. Among these must be 3 units of English and, in addition, 1 principal group of 3 or more units, and at least 1 secondary group of 2 or more units. These additional groups may be selected from among the following subjects:

1. Ancient languages (Greek and Latin), it being understood that to make a group of 2 or of 3 units the work must be offered in a single language.

2. Modern languages other than English; to make a group of 2 or of 3 units the work must be offered in a single language, as under group 1.

3. Ancient history, medieval and modern history, English history, United States history, civics, economics.

4. Mathematics.

5. Physics, chemistry, botany, zoology, general biology, physiology, physiography, general astronomy.

In group 5 not less than 1 unit may be offered in either physics or chemistry. Any combination of the subjects within each group is permitted.

Of the 15 units offered for entrance, at least 7 must be selected from the subjects in groups 1 to 5. Not less than one-half unit may be offered in any subject.

The remaining 5 units may be selected from any subjects for which credit toward graduation is given by the approved school from which the student receives his diploma ; but Greek, Latin, French, German (or any language other than English), mathematics, physics, and chemistry, if offered, but not as above under 1 and 5, must each consist of at least 1 unit. Latin may not be continued in college unless at least 2 units be offered.


Three units of English.

Three or more units in a single group, 1-5.

Two or more units in another single group, 1-5.

Two units in subjects selected from any of the groups 1-5. (Total 10 units in English and groups 1-5.)

Five units selected from any subjects accepted by an approved school for its diploma.

Not less than one-half unit will be accepted in any subject.

Entrance with conditions not permitted.

Still another discussion of the articulation of high school and college, that by a committee of the high-school teachers' association of New York City, published in pamphlet form, November, 1910, is worthy of note because of its content and because it prepared the way for the notable report of the committee of nine. The highschool committee made a detailed study of the entrance requirements of a number of colleges, and drew up a statement setting forth the impossibility of wisely meeting the needs of high-school pupils, on account of the college requirements. The committee suggested two plans for improving the situation:

1. By the first, college entrance would be based upon the simple fact of graduation from a four years' course in a first-class high school. This method would give complete satisfaction to the high school. If supplemented by competent examination into the efficiency of each school, we believe this method would tend to develop within the high school that Independence, breadth, and judgment required to produce the best results. The improvement in the high schools would result in better preparation and more students for the college.

2. The second plan, not as radical as the first, was proposed in order that the high schools might derive as soon as possible some measure of relief from present conditions.

This second method calls for—

(a) The reduction in the number of so-called "required" subjects, together with—

(6) The recognition of all standard subjects, as electives.

The requirement of two foreign languages from every student is regarded as particularly objectionable.

The committee reported its conclusions at the annual meeting of the association, May 7, 1910. The association ratified its report and instructed the committee to send it out and to invite correspondence upon the matters involved.

The committee wrote to the presidents of 115 colleges, to each State superintendent of public instruction, and to a number of city superintendents and high-school principals. The replies to these letters are given in the pamphlet,1 and comprise an excellent body of discussion bearing on the problems growing out of the relationship between high school and college.

Another investigation bearing on the same general problem, of bringing about an adjustment of the parts of our public-school sys

1 Articulation of High School and College, Issued by the High School Teachers' Association, New York City, 1910.

tem, was made under the auspices of the New York and Brooklyn teachers' associations by Charles S. Hartwell. In October, 1906, Mr. Hartwell sent out a questionnaire1 on (1) Flexibility in promotion, and (2) Should the 12-year course of study be equally divided between the elementary school and the secondary school?

In commenting upon the returns from the questions relating to a division of the course of study, Mr. Hartwell summarized the trend of opinion as follows:2

1. School education should be divided into two periods of six years each. The subdividing into three-year courses depends on local conditions.

2. Secondary education should be extended downward to the sixth year.

3. Departmental teaching should extend throughout the six years of secondary education.

4. During the seventh and possibly the eighth year, or the first and second years of the second six, a semidepartmental system, i. e., one in which each teacher takes two subjects instead of one, may suffice.

5. Promotions should be made by subjects throughout the six years of sec- , ondary education.

The most recent proposal is that made by a committee of the California Council of Education appointed to formulate recommendations relating to a readjustment of the courses of study for the schools of the State. This report was presented to the council in December, 1912, and was formally approved by that body.

The discussion which was held during the first decade of the movement (1888-1900) comprised an examination of the purpose and place, in our educational system, of the common school, the high school, and the institutions of higher learning. To a large degree this discussion was unrelated to anything concrete. While it started with a tangible problem—the need of lowering the age of college graduates—it speedily drifted away from this question and became academic in character. The second period (1900-1912), however, opened with a series of specific proposals, formulated by President Harper, 1902, bearing directly upon a reorganization of the entire school system. This brought the discussion back to where it has remained during its subsequent progress. The investigations by the National Council of Education and by the Department of Secondary Education, both under the auspices of the National Education Association, as well as that carried on by the New York and Brooklyn teachers' associations, attempted to devise plans of operation which would work. For the most part the men who conducted the inquiries made during this decade were in administrative positions, and naturally, therefore, applied the test of workability to every proposal submitted. The same practical end was sought by

1 See Sch. Rev., vol. 15 (1907), pp. 314-316; tabulation of results, Ibid., pp. 454-456. • 2Sch. Rev., vol. 15 (1907), pp. 184-196. ,/

Harvard and Chicago in their recommendations respecting the articulation of high school and college. In general, then, it may properly be said that the movement toward a functional reorganization of the school system has survived two of the stages through which every movement of consequence, on its way from inception to practice, must of necessity pass—that of academic discussion and that of the consideration of working plans.

The movement has now entered upon its third stage, that of actual adoption and trial. The future only can disclose the result. The experiments which have already been made, however, are sufficiently numerous to point the way.

Chapter V.


Contents.—The grouping of grades among American cities—Tendencies toward uniformity of grouping—Departures from the typical grouping; Boston Latin School; college preparatory schools of Chicago and Providence—The movement toward reorganization, as exemplified In Peabody, Webster, Marshalltown, Aurora, Selma, Muskegon, Kalamazoo, Roanoke, Saginaw, Jacksonville, New Albany, Alameda, Baltimore, Olean, Ithaca, Rahway, Richmond, Concord (N. II.), Los Angeles, Berkeley, Minneapolis, the State of New York, the Philippine Islands, the Argentine Republic, Japan.

A canvass made in 1911 of the 669 American cities then listed by the United States Commissioner of Education as having a population of 8,000 and over disclosed the following facts respecting the length of public-school courses and the years embraced in each division: Four hundred and eighty-nine have a course of eight years elementary and four years secondary; 48 have a course of seven years elementary and four years secondary; 86 have one of nine years elementary (not including the kindergarten) and four years secondary; 7 have the usual eight years elementary, but offer only three years in the high school; 4 have a course of eight years elementary and five years secondary; 3 have organized on the basis of seven years elementary and five years secondary; 8 are represented in the plans calling for six years elementary and four years secondary, seven years elementary and three years secondary, and nine years elementary and three years secondary; and 24 have made or are making significant departures from the foregoing types.

With a few exceptions the cities having a nine-year elementary course are among the New England States. This arrangement dates back to 1872, when the school superintendents of New England, in formal session at Worcester, Mass., fixed the age of entrance at 5 and adopted a program of studies for primary and grammar schools to cover nine years.2 Among the Southern States, the typical elementary course is one of seven years, probably adopted because of the poverty of the people and their inability to make further provision for school work when their school systems were established.

1 For later information than Is contained in this chapter see Rept. of U. S. Comr. of Ed. for 1914, Vol. I, Ch. VI, and 1915, Ch. II and V.

2 The Massachusetts Teacher, October, 1873.

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