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given at this school there is hardly any training of the powers of observation. Neither music nor drawing is a subject of instruction. Laboratory work in the elementary science of the first year and in sixth year physics occupies about half of the time allotted to those subjects in the program; but many pupils who are proposing to go to college give additional time to the laboratory study of physics.
5. A public school situated In a New England city combines a well-developed English high-school course with an equally well-developed classical course intended to prepare boys and girls for admission to colleges of high standing. This school teaches physiology, chemistry, and physics partly by the laboratory method and is well equipped for such work. It also gives much instruction in penmanship, stenography, and typewriting, but chiefly for pupils who take the commercial course. Drawing is an elective study open to all pupils, ordinarily for two periods (of 45 minutes each) a week. Physical training is an elective subject open to all girls for two periods a week, but not to boys. The school maintains two large chorus classes, and an orchestra of about 50 pieces, each meeting once a week. There is a class in harmony which meets twice a week. The boys' glee club and the girls' glee club meet outside of the school. All music work is elective, but is under the personal supervision of the director of music employed by the school committee. The school does not provide any form of manual training; perhaps because it has an alliance with a technical school close by.
On account of the many kinds of pupil in this school, and of the large volume of Instruction needed»to meet their various wants, the best way to estimate the proportion of the school's energy which goes into the teaching of observational and scientific subjects is to ctmipare the number of teachers employed in the school for those subjects with the number employed for the languages and literatures, and for history, civics, and mathematics.
There are 79 teachers, of whom 13 are men. Out of these 79, 12 teach subjects which may be said to include a considerable proportion of training of the senses; namely, drawing, physiology, chemistry, physics, and physical culture. Of these 12, 2 are men giving full time, and 1 Is the musical director, who gives 5 hours a week. One female teacher gives only part of her time to a subject belonging in this category—physiology. Another, a teacher of physiology, gives part of her time to a commercial subject. It appears, therefore, that 154 per cent of the school's energy goes into the teaching of subjects of an observational and scientific quality, and 84J per cent into instruction in languages, literature, mathematics, history, and civics. The individual pupil may devote either somewhat more or somewhat less than 15 per cent of his attention to observational and scientific subjects.
6. In an old New England academy the prescribed studies are exclusively linguistic and mathematical with the following exceptions, a course In physical training which requires four hours a week throughout the academy course, and courses in physics, chemistry, and drawing, which are optional studies open to the two upper classes only. Languages—ancient and modern—and elementary mathematics occupy the great majority of the teachers, and almost all the time of the ordinary pupil. Regular instruction in music is, however, provided for members of the glee club and the chapel choir and of the mandolin club and the orchestra. The study of music, however, is completely voluntary and outside of the regular course of the academy. In 1914-15, 32 teachers were employed in this academy, 3 of whom were devoted to the teaching of physics and chemistry, and 2 to the instruction in physical training. This academy maintains laboratories for physics, chemistry, and mechanical drawing, and allows the pupils in these subjects to devote two hours twice a week to laboratory work in these subjects. The voluntary instruction in music—both vocal and instrumental—is given one evening a week for about seven months; but much more time is given to music by individual pupils. An examination Is required for admission to any one of the musical clubs. Membership in these clubs is considered an honor, and regularity of attendance at their rehearsals is strictly enforced.
7. Another endowed academy in New England maintains two courses of study—one called the classical, the other the scientific. In the classical course no observational subject whatever finds place, except optional physics and chemistry, each four periods a week in the senior year, and optional mechanical drawing for two periods a week in the senior year. The scientific course makes chemistry and physics elective one year earlier than the classical, and therefore perhaps permits the pupils who elect it to advance further in these two subjects. This academy possesses laboratories for physics and chemistry, and teaches both these subjects by the laboratory method. Opportunity is offered for the study of piano, organ, and harmony; but this instruction does not make part of any course of study maintained by the academy. The subject of drawing other than mechanical drawing is not mentioned either in the course of study or in the elaborate constitution of this academy. Memory subjects have an overwhelming preponderance over observational.
8. In a good, partially endowed, New England school which is intended for sons of well-to-do people, the total number of recitation hours contained in the six years' program of studies is 185, of which only 28 contain an element of observational work; and to arrive at this figure 28, there must be included in it all the hours given to physical training, namely, 12, and 1 hour a week given in the two earliest years to singing. Of the other 14 hours, 5 are devoted to manual training, 5 to physics, and 4 to chemistry, physics being a required study and chemistry an alternative for Greek. In this school nearly the whole weight of instruction is applied to languages, mathematics, and a moderate proportion of historical teaching, in which is included the history of English literature.
9. In another similar (also preparatory) school, partially endowed, four distinct courses are maintained in each of the four years. One of these is called the scientific course, because it is intended to prepare candidates for admission to a scientific school rather than to a college. This course prescribes a little more science in the lower middle (second) and senior years than any one of the other three courses, but out of its 79 periods of recitation in the four years only 7 are devoted to science of any sort. All the rest are given to languages, history, and elementary mathematics. No drawing is taught in the school and no music, except during 1 hour a week for those pupils who desire it—about onefifth of the whole number.
10. In an excellent private school for boys situated in New England the five years' course of study shows a small proportion of expenditure for instruction in observational and scientific subjects. Instruction is provided for 139 periods u week of 40 minutes each. Out of these only 16 periods are devoted to observational and scientific subjects, all put together, being Hi per cent of the total instruction offered. Out of 11 teachers 2, or 184 per cent, give their whole attention to manual training, sloyd, drawing, physics, and chemistry; and these teachers are provided with facilities for teaching carpentry, wood carving, basketry, metalwork, and clay modeling, and with well-equipped laboratories for teaching physics and chemistry. The school also pays unusual attention to systematic athletic sports and exercises under careful supervision. It should be mentioned also that the spirit of the teaching in such subjects as languages and geometry is unusually observational, and the methods as far as possible Inductive and concrete. It is one of the very few schools in the country which provides in its junior department of two preliminary years (not included in this statement) a teacher who takes the younger boys on observational walks in the country and older boys on trips to commercial plants, where the practical applications of physics and chemistry in the Industrial arts may be seen. The school building contains a gymnasium; but the school puts its emphasis on outof-door exercises in winter as well as in spring and fall, and, to carry out this policy, has a good field and a well-equipped field house. In its course of study and its announcement for 1914-15 the word "music" does not occur, except as one subject among many for 10-minute morning talks. Like some other schools mentioned in this appendix, this school has made significant improvements in its program for 1915-16.
11. In a good private secondary school for the sons of well-to-do families recently organized and partially endowed in a New England town there are six classes or years which exhibit varying percentages of observational studies. For the youngest, or Class VI, science has 3 periods out of 25 provided. In Class V political geography is the only subject that could be called scientific, and this subject has 2 periods out of 25. In Class IV science, which is physiology and hygiene, is assigned 2 periods out of 19. In the three classes already mentioned manual training is provided for two periods a week and music Is taught for one period; but for these periods no previous preparation by study or practice is required of the pupils. In Class III forestry replaces the manual training, and no other science appears in the work of the year. In Class II physics, with four periods and two hours of laboratory work, is offered as an alternative for Latin with five periods; and elective science Is offered for two periods more. Manual training for two periods reappears in the program of tliis year, and the one period for music is continued. For Class II the school offers instruction covering 37 periods, of which chemistry and physics have each four periods with two hours of laboratory work In each. There Is an option between these two subjects. Two periods are given to manual training and one to music, as before. One period a week is given to music in every one of the six years of this school. The boys are taught first to read music and then are trained in part singing. Incidentally they learn a little about harmony and about the technique and the various forms of musical composition. In the first class (last year) appreciation of music is taught in connection with the study of famous works. The school also provides teaching for two glee clubs and the school chorus, which are voluntary pupil organizations. In the final year (Class I) each pupil selects from the 37 periods of instruction, with the advice and approval of the head master, a course of study suited to his own needs, the amount of instruction provided by the school being at least twice as much as any single pupil can advantageously take.
12. In an excellent secondary school for girls situated in New England the whole course is divided into eight classes, each of which has some instruction in sight singing, the use of the voice in reading and speaking, and gymnastics. In the first year, or Class I. of the school, and out of a total of 19 periods in the week, 1 period is devoted to elementary science, without the use of any textbook, and 2 periods are devoted to drawing, color work, and writing. In the next year of the school, Class II, out of 21 periods, 1 period is devoted to botany and 2 periods for half the year to physical geography, and the time devoted to drawing, color work, and writing is the same as in the first year. In the third year, Class III, out of 21 periods, 1 is given to the elements of zoology, no textbook being used, and 3 periods are devoted to sewing, stenciling, and color work. In the fourth year, Class IV, instruction is given in the elements of domestic economy, cooking, leather work, and color work, and 4 periods are used for these subjects, but leather work and color work are elective subjects. In the fifth year, Class V, color work, copying at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, carving, and drawing are taught as elective subjects, each for one period, but the copying at the Art Museum is done in the afternoon outside of school hours. This special opportunity at the museum may be used once a week in the afternoon in each of four years of the program. In the sixth year, Class VI, 3 periods out of 29 are used for general science, and of the 29 periods, 5 are assigned to elective Greek. In the seventh year, Class VII, out of 37J periods, 2 periods are assigned to physiology and 3 to chemistry as elective studies, and Greek is again elective for 5 periods. The pupil may not take 5 hours of science in Class VII. In the eighth and last year of the regular program, Class VIII, out of 54 periods of instruction provided by the school, a large majority of which are elective, the pupil may, if she wish, devote 3 hours to physiology, 7 to chemistry, 2 to drawing, and 3 to music, thus giving a large part of her time to observational studies. Such a course would not, however, lead to a diploma, since with 15 hours given to observational work most pupils would find it impossible to meet the requirements of the school in regard to history and language. The number of recitation periods for members of the older classes averages 18 a week.
This school employs 8 room teachers, all of whom teach subjects not observational, and 31 department teachers, not all of whom give full time. Of the department teachers, 2 teach science, properly so called, 2 teach musical subjects, 3 artistic subjects, and 7 teach various forms of household economics, games or sports, and gymnastics. Approximately one-third of the teaching force is employed on observational, scientific, or skill subjects.
The excellent building of this school contains, besides the ordinary classrooms and recitation rooms, 6 music rooms, 3 laboratories, 2 play rooms, a gymnasium with a stage suitable for concerts, tableaux, and plays, a swimming pool, drawing and wood-carving rooms, a studio, and a domestic-science kitchen. This fact, as well as the varied instruction provided, shows that the school pays unusual attention to observational studies and to the acquisition by nearly every pupil of some sort of bodily skill.
13. The manual-training or technical schools of the country, in the secondary grade, generally retain in their courses a considerable amount of what is called academic work—that is, instruction in languages, history, and mathematics— but their programs contain a large proportion of studies which may properly be called observational, such as carpentry, printing, music, both vocal and instrumental, drawing, both mechanical and free-hand, pattern making, forging, chemistry, and physics. These schools offer a course in elementary science which gives a general view of science, and is provided for the purpose of arousing the interest of the pupils in the scientific method and its fruits. They usually offer a variety of industrial courses, such as courses in which printing, free-hand drawing, mechanical drawing, electricity, woodworking, or ironworking is the leading subject; and these courses naturally vary considerably in regard to the observational studies selected for each course. In all such courses the proportion of elective subjects is larger than in the ordinary high schools and academies; and the observational studies are apt to appear in the list of electives, although some of them frequently appear in the list of required studies. On the whole, the usual predominance of memory subjects disappears in the programs of these schools, doubtless for the reason that they really attempt to prepare boys for specified industrial careers. For decided success in any good modern trade or industry, a reasonable amount of sense training Is almost indispensable. In all such schools chemistry and physics are taught, with some use of the laboratory method. Drawing, both mechanical and free-hand, has its proper place in-the appropriate programs of technical schools, and through it an invaluable training of both eye and hand can be acquired. Some of these schools pay more attention to music than the average high school, although the work in music is generally elective. In order to give time for working in the shops and laboratories these schools usually extend the school day at least two hours into the afternoon without objection on the part <if the pupils, because the value of the shop and laboratory work Is as plain to them as it is to the teachers.