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with it. At each of these times, the sun, the moon, and the earth are nearly in the same right line; but in the first case the earth is between the sun and the moon; in the second, the moon is between the sun and the earth. .

By viewing the moon with the naked eye, we discern a number of bright and dark spots. These through a telescope appear to be vast ? cavities and mountains. That the higher or brighter parts are 6 mountains has been proved, by their casting a shadow upon those other portions of the moon's surface farthest from the sun, while on the contrary the cavities are always dark on the side nearest to the sun.

The Harvest Moon.--In the latter end of summer the moon rises for several nights together soon after sun-set; the advantage of this to the husbandman. in gathering in the fruits of the earth is considerable. The cause of it depends upon a peculiarity of the moon's motion, which cannot be understood without a further knowledge of Astronomy.

Tue Horizontal Moon is another remarkable phenomenon attending this luminary, which is seen also in the sun. You may have observed that the diameter of the moon when she rises or sets, always appears greater than when she is more elevated. The cause of this, appears to be the greater quantity of atmosphere through which her light passes-and as this has a magnifying or refractive power, it makes her appear larger to our eyes.

I Vide Root. 2. Small planets attendant on the primary planets. 3. Or exactly 27 d. 7 hrs., 43 m. 4 sec. from star to star, but from new moon to new moon is 29 d. 12 hrs 44 m. 3 sec. This difference in appearance is owing to the earth's motion being about an advance of one degree per day in the ecliptic, or 29 degrees per month The moon has to overtake the earth, to arrive at the same relative point, which requires 2 d. 5 hrs., as she advances 13 degrees daily in her orbit. 4. Presenting two points upward. 5. Convex, or swelling. 6. Dr. Herschel asserts that scarcely any mouutain in the moon exceeds half a mile.

SPAIN--(concluded.) The reign of Ferdinand and Isabella was disgraced by the establishment of the Spanish 'Inquisition. The design of this horrible institution was to "prevent the people from adopting any but the Roman Catholic religion.

Persons who were suspected of being heretics were thrown into damp and dismal dungeons. They were then brought before the inquisitors, who sat completely covered with long robes and hoods of sackcloth.

If the accused persons would not plead guilty, they were tortured in various ways. When the inquisitors had satisfied themselves with torturing their prisoners they prepared to burn them. The condemned persons walked in a 'procession, dressed in garments which were painted to imitate flames.

When they reached the place of execution, the victims were fastened to a stake with iron chains, and burnt to death by a slow fire. Such were the horrors of the Inquisition! yet it was introduced into Italy and other Catholic countries, and continued in operation for nearly three hundred years. Between thirty and forty thousand persons were burnt alive, before the Inquisition was abolished.

The remembrance of the 'Inquisition will ever cause a stain to rest upon Ferdinand and Isabella. The greatest glory of this king and queen was that they gave Christopher Columbus the means of discovering America.

The Spaniards made great conquests in America. The riches of the country were in this way much increased ; and there was more silver and gold in Spain than in all the rest of Europe. But it is doubtful whether Spain ever derived any ® real benefit from her American 'colonies; for instead of staying at home to cultivate the soil, the inhabitants crossed the ocean in search of gold and silver.

1. Vide Root. 2. Their wealth induced them to become idle; they neglected agriculture and manufactures; and ceasing to be industrious, although long possessing more wealth in gold, silver, and mines than all other nations together, Spain has become the poorest and weakest of the great nations of Europe. 3. Husband or Queen Mary of England, but the enemy of Queen Elizabeth, because she refused 10 inarry him after her sister's death, and because, being a Protestant, she assisted the people of the Netherlands, whom he very cruelly persecuted on account of their being l’rotestants.

One of the most powerful monarchs of Spain was • Philip the Second. Philip intended to conquer England, and prepared a fleet of eighty ships for that purpose. This fleet was called the 'Invincible Armada. But it was easily conquered, for a storm scattered it, and drove many of the ships on the British coast.

In the year 1700, Charles the Second of Spain died without children. He was succeeded by a young French prince, named Philip, duke of Anjou, the grandson of Louis the Fourteenth. The kings of this family are called the Spanish Bourbons.

In 1808, when the emperor Napoleon was at the height of his power, he compelled the Spanish king to 'abdicate his throne. The name of this king was Ferdinand the Seventh. Napoleon then placed the crown of Spain upon the head of his own brother, Joseph Bonaparte.

But most of the Spaniards refused to acknowledge king Joseph as their sovereign. A dreadful war ensued. The English government sent armies into Spain and Portugal; and it was there that Lord Wellington gained his first victories over the French.

Ferdinand, the old Spanish king, was replaced upon the throne in 1814. He was, however, a tyrant and a bigot, and his reign was mischievous to the country. His death took place in 1833.

GEOGRAPHICAL-What islands are near the coast of Spain ?
Where is the source of the following rivers, and what towns are situated on their

banks,-the Tagus, the Ebro, the Douro, Guadiana, Guadalquiver, and Man.

zanares? Wby was the war in Spain and Portugal called the Peninsular war? CHRONOLOGICAL.-Philip II., son of Charles V. of Germany, married Joanna daughter

of Ferdinand aud Isabella, and thus united Spain to Germany, 1580. Inquisition abolished in Spain, A. D. 1820.


Eclipses. When any heavenly body is obscured or darkened by the shadow of another falling upon it, or by the 'interposition of any body, it is said to be eclipsed. As the earth is an opaque body, enlightened only by the . sun, it will cast a shadow towards that side which is farthest from the sun. As the sun is much larger than the earth, the shadow of the latter must be conical, or end in a point. On the sides of this conical shadow, there is a ? diverging shadow, the density of which decreases in proportion as it 'recedes from the sides of the former conical shadow. This is called the 'penumbra. As the moon revolves round the earth sufficiently near to pass through the shadow of the earth, an eclipse must always take place when these three are all in one straight line.

An eclipse of the moon can never happen but at the time of full moon ; but on account of the inclination of the moon's orbit to that of the earth, an eclipse cannot take place every full moon.

The duration of a ' lunar eclipse is various; it sometimes lasts two or three hours.

The eclipses of the sun are owing to a different cause from those of the moon. They are occasioned by the moon's coming directly between us and the sun, and therefore obstructing our view of it. When the moon happens to be in conjunction ANWALDEN with the sun, or between the se sun and the earth, that is at PRETIMINE the time of the new moons, the shadow of the moon falls upon the surface of the earth; hence, properly speaking such eclipses should be called eclipses of the earth.

An eclipse of the moon is said to be partial when only a part of its disc is within the shadow of the earth; it

is total when all its disc is within its shadow; and cen. tral when the centre of the earth's shadow falls on the centre of the moon's disc. In a partial eclipse of the sun a penumbra, or imperfect shadow of the moon, falls on that part of the earth where the partial eclipse is seen.

An eclipse of the sun is said to be annular, when at the time of the eclipse a ring of the sun appears round the edges of the moon; and a central eclipse of the sun will be an annular one if the distance of the moon from the earth at the time of the eclipse be greater than its mean distance.

If the orbit of the earth and that of the moon were both in the same plane, there would be au eclipse of the sun at every new moon, and an eclipse of the moon at every full moon. But the orbit of the moon makes an angle of about five degrees and a quarter with the plane of the orbit of the earth, and crosses it in two points called ' nodes.

An eclipse of the sun begins at the western side of his disc and ends at the eastern, and an eclipse of the moon begins on the eastern side of her disc and ends on the western. .

The average number of eclipses in a year is four; two of the sun and two of the moon, but they vary considerably in different years. The series of lunar eclipses is repeated every nineteen years.

Although eclipses of the sun and moon were long considered by the ignorant and superstitious as presages of evil, yet they are of the greatest importance to the science of astronomy. By eclipses of the moon, the earth is proved to be of a globular form, the sun to be greater than the earth, and the earth greater than the moon. They also show the period of the moon's motion. In geography they aid in determining the longitude of places ; and in chronology, in fixing the time of many events.

1. Vide Root.

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