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THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.
Divisions and Classes. The animal kingdom is arranged by naturalists in four great divisions, called sub-kingdoms; namely, 'BACKBONED animals ; * SOFT or PULPY animals ; 3 JOINTED animals; and “RAYED Or BRANCHED animals.
The animals of the first sub-kingdom are the most important and best known. They contain an internal
skeleton or bony frame, by which their soft parts are firmly sustained and held together. The principal part of this frame is a chain of small bones called the spine or back-bone; one office of which is to protect the spinal marrow, a part of the nervous system, issuing from the brain, on which sensation and motion depend.
The animals of this division have red blood, and distinct organs for digestion, circulation, respiration, seeing, hearing, smelling, and tasting. They have never more than four limbs, and the mouth opens 'vertically.
Many of the back-boned animals attain to a great size, and their motions are characterised by certainty and vigour. They are divided into four classes, namely, milk-giving animals, embracing all that nourish their young with milk, called 5 mammalia ; 6 birds ; Treptiles ; and 8 fishes.
The animals of the second sub-kingdom are soft in texture, and without bones; but many of them inhabit a shell consisting of one, two, or more pieces, called valves, to which they are partially attached. Their blood is white, or slightly bluish ; their sensations are dull, and
SUB-KING VOMS. 1. Vertebrata, vertebra, a joint of the 3. Articuláta, articulus, a little joint. back.
4. Radiáta, radio, to give rays from a 2 Mollusca, mollis, soft.
First Sub Kingdom. 5 Mainmália, mamma, a breast. | 7. Reptilia, repo, to creep. f Aves, avis, a bird.
8. Pisces, piscis, a fish.
their motions slow. This division, consisting principally of the various kinds of snails and 'testaceous shell fish, is separated into six classes ; 'foot-headed, 10 fin-footed, u belly-creeping, 1 headless, 13 arm-footed, and 14 claspfooted.
The animals of the third sub-kingdom are more interesting than the preceding. They are principally distin. guished by having numerous joints or 'articulations. They are divided into four classes, namely, 15 ringed, or worm-like, 16 crust-covered, "spider-like, and 18 insects.
The fourth and last sub-kingdom comprehends the lowest classes of animal organization ; they approach the vegetable kingdom in their construction, their parts generally 'radiating from an axis, and the nervous system being scarcely perceptible.
They are divided into five classes, namely, 19 spinyskinned, 20 intestinal, a stinging, "polypi, and 23 infusoria.
The covering of different animals is, both for its variety and suitableness to their several natures, as much to be admired as any part of their structure. We have bristles, hair, wool, fur, feathers, quills, prickles, scales; yet in this diversity both of material and form, we cannot change one animal's coat for another, without evidently changing it for the worse; taking care, moreover, to remark that these coverings are, in many cases, armour as well as clothing; intended for protection, as well as warmth.
Second Sub-Kingdom. 9. Cephalopoda, kedain, the head, and 12. Acéphala, a, without, and kepann, Kous, a foot.
the head. 10. Pteropoda, #Tepov, a fin, and rous, 13. Brachipoda, Bpaxıwv, an arm, and a foot.
mous, a foot. 11. Gasteropoda,yaornp, a stomach, and 14. Cirrhópoda, cirrus, a curl, and mous, nous, a foot.
Third Sub-Kingdom. 15. Annuláta, annulus, a ring.
| 17. Aracanides, apaxvns, a spider. 16. Crustácea, crusta, a shell.
| 18. Insécta, inseco, to cut.
Fourth Sub-Kingdom. 19 Echinodermata, exivos, a hedgehog, 21. Acalépha, akaanon, a nettle. and depua, a skin.
22 Pólypi, molus, many, and mous,a foot. 20. Entozóa, evtos, within, and wov, an , 23. Infusória, infusor, a pourer in.
Norman Kings. William the Conqueror (as the duke of Normandy was now called) reigned nearly twenty-one years. He was succeeded by his second son, William Rufus, or the Red, who was so named from the colour of his hair.
This king was very fond of hunting. One day, while he was chasing a deer in the : forest, a gentleman named Walter Tyrrell let fly an arrow. It glanced against a tree, and hit the king in the breast; so that he died.
This took place in the year 1100, and William Rufus was succeeded by his brother Henry. This king was called Beauclerk, or Excellent Scholar, because he was able to write. On the death of king Henry Beauclerk, in 1135, the throne was 3 usurped by Stephen of Blois. But he died in 1154, and was succeeded by Henry the Second, who was grandson to the former Henry.
During the reign of this king, Ireland was conquered, and 'annexed to the realm of England. It had previously been divided into several separate kingdoms.
Richard the Lion-hearted was crowned king of England in 1189. He was a valiant man, and possessed prodigious strength; and he delighted in nothing so much as battle and slaughter. After gaining great renown in 4 Palestine, lie was, on his way back, taken and imprisoned for two years by the duke of Austria.
The English obtained Richard's release by paying a heavy ransom; but he was soon afterwards killed. The next king was Richard's brother Sohn, surnamed 6 Lackland. A violent quarrel soon took place between this king and the clergy. The Pope of Rome took the part of the clergy, laid the kingdom under an interdict, and gave the crown to Philip the Second, of France, who immediately made war on England. To obtain pardon of the Pope, John resigned his crown, and the Pope retained it five days.
1. Vide Root. 2. Called the New Forest, in Hampshire, made by William I. 3. Because the right was in Matilda, daughter of Henry 1. Geoffrey Martel of France, who married Matilda, daughter of Henry I., originated the name of Plautagenet. 4. In the crusade. 5. Or, Sans Terre, either because his father Jelt him without land, or because he lost the patrimonial possession, Normandy. 6. Magna Charta is still preserved in the British Museum.
The barons of England were so disgusted with the conduct of John, that they assembled at Runnymede, and compelled him to sign a written deed, called “ Magna Charta. This famous charter was dated the 19th of July, 1215. It is considered the foundation of English liberty. It deprived John, and all his successors, of the despotic power which former kings had exercised.
King John died in 1216, and left the crown to his son, who was then only nine years old. He was called Henry the Third. His reign continued fifty-five years.
During this reign, in the year 1258, the earl of Leicester formed a powerful confederacy against the king. For a time he was successful, and in order to secure himself, he appealed to an aid, till now entirely unknown in England, the body of the people. He called a parliament, where besides the barons and ecclesiastics, he ordered returns to be made of two knights from every shire, and also deputies from the boroughs. This parliament was called on the 20th of January, 1265; and here we find the first outline of an English House of Commons.
GEOGRAPHICAL.-What islands are adjacent to Great Britain?
arm for standard yard measure. Stephen.-Civil wars. Baronial castles. Henry II.-Ireland conquered, 1172. William the Lion, of Scotland, prisoner.
Thomas à Becket. Richard.—War with Saladin. Massacre of the Jews in England. Robin Hnod. John.-Magna Charta signed, July 19, 1215. Last invasion of England. Henry III.--Civil war. Roger Bacon invented magic lantern. Charter to New
castle for coals.
Rivers. Rivers in general have their sources in mountains and in high ground. The same heat which is necessary for the growth of vegetation, creates a copious evaporation from the land and water. The vapours thus raised are conveyed by the air to the mountain tops, from the sides of which the waters are 'precipitated. The mountain streams, which are at first rills, brooks, and rivulets, unite, and thus rivers are formed. Such is the origin of the Rhine, the Rhone, and other still mightier streams. Rivers also issue from lakes. The river St. Lawrence, in North America, issues from Lake Ontario, and is the great outlet by which the superabundant waters of the grandest chain of lakes in the world are conveyed to the ocean.
Whilst the source of a river is the place or spring where it rises, the mouth or entrance is that part of it where it discharges itself into the sea, or Aows into some other river. If very wide it is called a frith or estuary. The right or left bank of a river is that which is to the right or left of a person coming from its source. The upper part is nearest its source, the lower is nearest its mouth.
Countries that are at a distance from the sea have the grandest and most useful rivers. Many rivers periodically overflow their banks. Those between the tropics are of this class. The solar heat ' rarefies and elevates the air in those regions; the winds rushing in to supply the vacant space bring with them clouds charged with vapours. Heavy rains therefore follow the course of the sun on both sides of the 'equinoctial, and cause the 'inundation of the rivers. On the overflowing of the Nile depends the fertility of Egypt, and from the rich soil left by the Ganges on the land which it has inundated, are gathered exuberant crops of rice; and this benefit, together with the