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majestic aspect of the river, has caused it to receive 2 divine honours from the idolatrous Hindoo.

The advantages derived from rivers as the sources of national wealth are 'incalculable. They feed canals, turn inills, and mingle and assist in nearly all the operations of human industry. The one hundred and ten canals which England now boasts, are supplied from the exhaustless munificence of her rivers.

Rivers are the outlets by which the wealth of a nation is conveyed to foreign realms, and the intets by which it receives their riches in return. Places situate on a river and near the sea, are therefore advantageously situated for commerce; hence most capitals and many large 3 cities are built on the banks of rivers. It is to her position on the Thames that London is chiefly indebted for her rank as the first commercial city in the world.

When a river suddenly changes its level, so that the stream is plunged down a considerable distance, a cataract or cascade is formed. These falls are sometimes very beautiful, and sometimes very terrific. Some cataracts owe their celebrity to the vast volume of water which is poured in an unbroken sheet over a great descent, as with Niagara; others are remarkable only for the vast height from which they fall, whether they plunge down the abyss at a single leap, or dash themselves successively from shelf to shelf till they reach the bottom of the 'precipice. Some fall in a small riband-like current over the edge of the rock, and are dispersed before they reach the ground into thin spray, and others, driven by the force of the current, fall over in a continuous arch, between which and the bottom of the ledge from which they have fallen, the visitor may pass.

1. Vide Root. 2. Write the names of the rivers which flow from the principal mountain ranges. 3. Cities in the United States are generally built at the abrupt turning or doubling of a river, so as to have the advantages of the river on three sides; the other side having a land fortification.

ENGLAND. English Wars and Rebellions. The next king, Edward the First, was crowned in 1272. The people gave him the nickname of Longshanks, because his legs were of unusual length. He was both a warrior and ' legislator. He fought bravely in Palestine, and in the civil wars of England.

Edward conquered Wales, which had hitherto been a separate kingdom. He also attempted to conquer Scotland, but the illustrious William Wallace successfully resisted him. At last, however, Wallace was taken prisoner and carried in chains to London, and there ? executed.

His son, Edward the Second, ascended the throne in 1307. He led an army of a hundred thousand men into Scotland. Robert Bruce encountered him at 3 Bannockburn with only thirty thousand men, and gained a glorious victory. By this battle Scotland was set free. Edward the Second reigned about twenty years. He was a foolish and miserable king. His own wife made war against him, and took him prisoner. By her 'instigation he was cruelly murdered in prison.

His son, Edward the Third, began to reign in 1327, at the age of fifteen. He had not long been on the throne before he showed himself very unlike his father. He beat the Scots at 5Halidown Hill, and successfully invaded France.

The son of Edward the Third, surnamed the Black Prince, was even more valiant than his father. He was also as kind and generous as he was brave. He conquered king John of France, and took him prisoner; but he did not exult' over him. When they entered London together,

1 Vide Root. 2. A.D. 1305. 3. A.D. 1314. $. At Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire. 5. Near Berwick, 1333. 6. On account of the colour of bis armour. 7. Origin of the title of Lord Mayor, and of the dagger in the city arins.

the Black Prince rode bareheaded by the side of the

captive monarch, as if he were merely an attendant, instead of a conqueror.

This brave prince died in 1376, and his father lived only one year longer. The next king was Richard the Second, a boy of eleven years old.

During his reign, in 1381, a rebellion was headed by a blacksmith, named Wat Tyler. They marched to London with a hundred thousand followers, and did a great deal of mischief.

The king, attended by a few of his nobles, rode out to hold a conference with Wat Tyler. The blacksmith was very rude, and even threatened the king with a drawn sword.

William Walworth, the lord mayor of London, was standing near the king. He was so offended at Wat Tyler's insolence, that he uplifted a mace, or club, and 7 smote Wat to the ground. A knight then killed him with a sword.

When the rebels saw that the blacksmith was slain, they gave an angry shout, and were rushing forward to attack the king's party. But king Richard rode boldly to meet them, and waved his hand with a majestic air.

“ Be not troubled for the death of your leader,” he cried. “I, your king, will be a better leader than Wat Tyler.” The king's words and looks made such an impression, that the rebels immediately submitted.

GEOGRAPHICAL.-Write the names of the principal places in the following counties

Northern Circuit.


Find the following mountains and hills :-Ben Nevis, the highest in Great Britain,

4376 feet; Snowden, the highest in Wales, 3571 feet; Sca Fell, the highest in England, 3166 feet; and also Ben Lomond; the Cheviot hills; Skiddaw; the

Malvern; and the Mendip. CERONOLOGICAL.-Edward I. Wales subjected A.D. 1282. Mariners' compass

invented. Edward II. Knights Templars suppressed. Interest of money 45 por ceat. III, Cressy, 1346. Poictiers, 1356. Calais taken. John of France, an i

David of Scotland, prisoners in London,


The Ocean. The term ocean indicates the extensive bodies of salt water which cover the greater part of the earth's surface. It is the grand thoroughfare of commerce, forming a medium of communication between the most distant and otherwise 'inaccessible portions of the earth. Geographers roundly estimate the ocean and its branches to occupy three-fourths of the entire surface of the globe.

The ocean is variously subdivided; it may, however, be considered as made up of five great portions.-Ist, the Pacific Ocean. 2nd, the Atlantic Ocean. 3rd, the Indian Ocean. 4th, the Arctic Ocean. 5th, the Antarctic Ocean.

The ? Pacific Ocean was so called by Magellan, from its comparative tranquillity. It is the largest of the ocean basins, and somewhat exceeds the entire surface of dry Jand. It is bounded on the east by the western and north-western shores of America, and on the west by the eastern coasts of Asia. On the western side, and between the tropics, its surface is studded by innumerable groups of islands, consisting generally of coral reefs, rising up like a wall from unknown depths, and 'emerging but a very little above the sea. On the western side it communicates with the inland seas of Japan and Ochotsk, the Yellow and Chinese seas; and on the eastern side it has the inlets of California and Queen Charlotte's Sound. The small islands of the Pacific scattered over the torrid zone, have their temperature so moderated by the ocean, as to enjoy the most delightful climate in the world.

The Atlantic Ocean is only about half the size of the Pacific Ocean. The southern part of the Atlantic contains but few islands of any size, and no inlets of any

consequence. But the northern abounds in large islands, and in deep and numerous inland seas which penetrate far into both the old and new worlds, and have fitted it for the most extensive commerce.

The Indian Ocean washes the shores of the south-east coasts of Africa and the south of Asia. It is bounded on the east by the Indian islands, New Holland, and New Zealand. It contains many islands, the two large bays of Bengal and Oman, sometimes called the Arabian sea, with the deep inlets of the Persian gulf and Red sea. The half-yearly winds called monsoons, prevail in its northern parts.

The Arctic Ocean is an immense circular basin surrounding the north pole, and communicating with the Pacific and the Atlantic by a few channels; the one separating America from Europe, and the other, America from Asia. Its interior or central parts are little known; several islands are scattered over its southern extremities, the largest of which is Greenland, whose northern limit is unknown. The others are Spitzbergen and Nova Zembla. The White sea, on the north coast of Siberia, is the only deep gulf 2 connected with this basin.

The fifth ocean is the 6 Antarctic, which is still less kvown than the preceding. It joins the Pacific in the latitude of fifty degrees south, and the Indian Ocean in that of forty degrees. Floating ice appears in every part of it. Land has recently been discovered at various points beyond the latitude of sixty-two degrees, which may indicate the existence of a southern continent in the vicinity of the south pole.

1. Vide Root. 2. It is 11,000 miles in length from east to west, 8,000 in breadth, and covers an area of 50,000,000 square miles. 3. It is 8,600 miles in length, bear 5,000 at its greatest breadth, and its area 25,000,000 miles. 4 It is 4,500 in length and breadth, and covers about 17,000,000 square miles. 5. Its circuit about the pole is nearly 9,000 miles. 6. Has an area of about 30,000,000 square miles.

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