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APPENDIX,-ASTRONOMY. 311 Nadir, from the Arabic, and meaning opposite to. The point

of the heavens directly under our feet. NEBULÆ, from nephos, a fog or cloud. A name given to cloudy

clusters of very small stars. Nodes, from nodus, a knot. The two opposite points where a

planet's orbit cuts the ecliptic. OBLIQUE SPHERE, is that position of the globe in which the

equator and the parallels of latitude cut the horizon obliquely. OCCULTATION, froni ob, and celo, to conceal. The obscuration

of a star or planet by the interposition of the moon. ORBIT, from orbis, a circle. The tract or line in which a planet

performs its revolution round the sun. ORRERY or PLANETARIUM, named after the Earl of Orrery, who

first exhibited it. A machine for exhibiting the motions of

the heavenly bodies. PARALLAX, from para, and allasso, to change, is the angle formed

at the centre of a heavenly body by two lines drawn from the

earth, one line from its centre, and the other from its surface. PARALLEL SPHERE, from para, and allelón, each other, is that posi

tion of the globe in which the equator is parallel to the horizon. PENUMBRA, from pene, almost, and umbra, a shadow, is a faint

shadow surrounding the perfect shadow in an eclipse. PERIGEE, from peri, about, and ge, the earth, is that point of the

moon's orbit which is nearest to the earth. PeriHelion, from peri, and h-elios, the sun. That part of a

planet's orbit which is nearest to the sun. Phases, from phao, to shine. The different appearances of the

planets. PLANET, from planao, to wander. A body revolving about the sun. Poles, from poleo, to turn. The extremities of the earth's axis. PRECESSION OF THE EQUINOXES, from pre, before, and cedo, to

go. A very slow motion of the equinoctial points, from east to

west, amounting to about 50' in a year. PRIMARY PLANETS, from primus, first. Those which have the

sun for their centre. SATELLITES, or SECONDARY PLANETS, from satelles, an attendant,

revolve about some primary planet. Sign, the twelfth part of the zodiac. Tropics, from trepo, to turn, are two smail circles parallel to the

equator, and 23° 28' from it on each side. The space included

between them is called the torrid zone. ZENITH, an Arabic term. The point directly over our head. Zodiac, from zoös, living,-hence animals. A belt or girdle in

the heavens of 16° in breadth. ZONES, from zona, a girdle. Five belt-like divisions of the

earth, and called the torrid, the north and south temperate, and the north and south frigid zones.

SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. The specific gravity of a body is its weight compared with the same bulk of water. The body is weighed in air, then weighed in water. The weight in air divided by the difference of the two weights gives the specific gravity. Metals.

Earths, fc. Common brass ........ 7.824

Glass .............. 2.892 Copper.............. 9.000

Hone, white, razor.... 2.876 Gold, pure .........19.258

Limestone .......... 3.179 Gold, guinea of Geo.3 .. 17.629

Marble, white........ 2.717 Iron, cast............ 7.207 Phosphorus ........... 1.714 Iron, bar ............ 7.788

Porcelain, China ...... 2.385 Steel, tempered and

Porphyry, red ........ 2.765 hardened ......... 7.818

| Slate, common........ 2.672 Lead, molten ........11.352

Stone, pumice........ .915 Mercury, solid ........15.632

Sulphur, native ...... 2.033 fluid........13.568

-- molten ...... 1.991 Platina, rolled .........22.069

Talc of Muscovy...... 2.792 Silver, virgin .......10.744 -- shilling of Geo. 3, 10.534

Liquors, Oils, fc. Tin, pure............ 7.291 Acid, sulphuric :...v 1.841 Zinc, molten ........ 7.191 Alcohol, commercial • -.837 Precious Stones.

- highly rectified .829 Beryl .............. 3.549 Beer, pale .......... 1.024 Crystal, European .... 2.655 Cider .............. 1.018 Diamond, white ...... 3.521

Milk, cows' .......... 1.032 Emerald ........... 2.775

Oil of turpentine .870 Garnet .......

4.189
Whale oil

.923 Quartz, crystallized .. 2.655 Turpentine ....

.991 Ruby, oriental........ 4.283

Wine, port ..... .997 Sapphire, do. ........ 3.994

Bees' wax ....

.965 Topaz, do. .......... 4.011

Butter ........

.942 Silicious Stones. Fat beef ......

.923

Honey .............. 1.450 Agate, oriental ...... 2.590

Tallow.............. .942 Chalcedony, common.. 2.616 Cornelian, pale ...... 2.630

Woods. Flint........ 2.582

.845 Jasper .....

2.539 Beech .............. .843 Opal ........

2.114
Box, French ..

.912 Pearl

2.684

Cedar of Palestine ..... .613 Sardonyx....

2.603
Cork......

.240 Earths,

Ebony, American .... 1.331 Alabaster ............ 2.730 E m ................ .671 Amber : ............ 1.078 Fir ................ .550 Asbestos ............ 2.578 Mahogany .......... 1.063 Chalk ............. 2.784 Oak ......

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APPENDIX,--BOTANY.

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BOTANY—THE LINNÆAN CLASSIFICATION. * LINNEUS, the Swedish botanist, founded his classification on the number, situation, and relations of the stamens and pistils. By the stamens he determined his classes, and by the pistils the orders. Classes. 1. MONANDRIA, Flowers having 1 stamen. 2. DIANDRIA,

2 stamens. 3. TRIANDRIA, 4. TETRANDRIA, .. 5. PENTANDRIA, 6. HEXANDRIA, 7. HEPTANDRIA, .. 8. OCTANDRIA, .. 9. ENNEANDRIA,

.. 9 10. DECANDRIA, 11. DODECANDRIA, ..

.. 12 .. 12. ICOSANDRIA,

above 12 .. on the calyx. 13. POLYANDRIA, .. above 12 .. on the receptacle. 14. DIDYNAMIA, ..

2 long and 2 short stamens. 15. TETRADYNAMIA,.. .. 4 long and 2 short stamens. 16. MONADELPHIA, .. .. stamens in 1 bundle. 17. DJADELPHIA, ..

2 bundles. 18. POLYADELPHIA, ..

many bundles. 19. SYNGENESIA, Flowers having stamens united above and

distinct from the style. 20. GYNANDRIA, Flowers having stameus united above and

united to the style. 21. Monecia, Flowers having stamens and pistils in distinct

blossoms on the same plant. 22. Diecia, Flowers having stamens and pistils in distinct

blossoms on different plants. . 23. POLYGAMIA, Flowers having stamens and pistils in distinct

blossoms, or stamens only and pistils only. 24. CRYPTOGAMIA, Plants not having flowers.

GREEK ROOTS. Monos .. 1 | Tetra ..4 I H-epta .. 1 Deka ....10 Dis .... 2 Pente . 5 Okto ....8 Dodeka . . 12 Treis.... 3 H-ex.... 6 Ennea .. 9 Eikosi .. 20

Polus, many. Andria, from aner, a man. | Genesia, from ginomai, I bring Dynamia, from dunamis, power. I forth. Delphia, from adelphia, bro-Oecia, from oikia, a house. therhood.

Gamia, from gamos, marriage. Gyn, from gune, a woman. | Crypto, from krupto, I hide.

SPECIMEN OF ETYMOLOGICAL QUESTIONING.

On The Roots of WORDS.

What is the meaning of the word two Give another word from the same root ? twice, twain, &c. To put two together twine. Very strongly? twist. To undo? untwine. Čloth of twisted cords ? twill. Between the lights ? twilight, Persons or things ? between.

Combat between two ? duel, dueller. Root ? duo, two. Government of two ? duumvirate. Song for two ? duet. To fold into two ? double. An exact copy ? duplicate.

Every two years ? biennial (bis). What is an animal of two feet called ? biped. Cut into two parts ? bisect. Why is leapyear called Bissextile? (Two days in that year were each called the sixth before the calends of March). Why billion ? double million, or a million of millions. To put together? combine. Twice baked ? biscuit. By twos? binary. Having two wives? bigamy, &c.

Another word for place ? locality (locus). Relating to place? local. To place together? collocatę. To put out of place? dislocate. If the limb be broken ? fracture, fractured (frango). To settle in a place ? locate. The place settled on ? locality. Confined to the precise place ? local ;-loco-motive, &c.

Another word relating to place ? topical (topos). Description of a place ? topography. Imaginary place ? Utopia. Difference between Utopia and Eutopia ? the latter means a good place (eu). Give instances ? eulogy, euphony, evangelist, eucharist."

What root indicates east, rising, and beginning ? orior. Give an instance of each ? oriental, orient, origin. The earliest inhabitants of a country ? aborigines. What is the subject of this figure ? the sun. Another word for sun ? sol. Derivatives ? solar, parasol, &c.

A Saxon word for rising ? stigan, I rise. A raised platform ? stage. The risings to a platform ? stairs. Above a flight of stairs? story. A raised barrier ? stile. A raised step? stirrup, stilt. A rising in the eye? stye...

What is the meaning of the word temporal ? Living at the same time? contemporary Time in grammar ? tense. To yield to the time? temporize. Without time on the instant? extempore. Lasting but for a short time? temporary

The science of time ? chronology. Root? chronos. A measurer of time? chronometer. Disease lasting a long time? chronic. A time register? chronicle, &c.

APPENDIX-ETYMOLOGY.

315

Give instances in which the word polis, a city or town, is used ? metro-polis, chief city deca-polis, ten cities : Constantinople, city of Constantine; Necro-polis, city of the dead; Acro-polis, the upper city; police, polity, polite, impolitic, politics.

ON THE PREFIXES AND POSTFIXES.

Another word for writer ? scribe. Principal writings ? Scriptures. Careless writing ? scribble. Account of a place ? description. To write in a place ? inscribe. Round or about ? circumscribe. To write above ? superscribe. Below ? subscribe. Before ? prescribe. Writing afterwards ? postscript. Written together? conscript. Against the writings ? anti-scriptural. That cannot be written ? indescribable, non-descript, &c.

What is the meaning of the prefix con? with or together. Give instances ? con-cord, con-gregate, con-verge, con-vocate. In what other forms is it written ? co, cog, col, com, cor. Give instances ? co-equal, re-cognize, col-lect, com-press, cor-réspond. Why is it variously written ? &c. What other prefixes are varied for the sake of euphony ? ad, to, in, not, ab, against, &c.

Mention some of the postfixes used to verbs ? ate, en, fy, ish, ize. What is the meaning of all these terminations ? to make. Give instances ? animate, facilitate ; quicken, lengthen ; magnify, purify; publish, nourish; fertilize, familiarize,

ON THE SINGLE WORD. What is the meaning of the word monarchical Analyse it ? What are the roots ? The postfix ? Give other instances of arch, signifying rule or government ? heptarchy, hierarchy, patriarch, anarchy, oligarchy. Give other instances of mon, signifying one ? monad, monk, monastery, monody, monosyllable, monotony. What is the meaning of the postfix ical ? belonging to. Give other instances ? historical, optical, poetical.

If the government is by four persons ? tetrarchy. If by seven ? heptarchy. If by an indefinite but small number? oligarchy. If by many ? polygarchy. If by ecclesiastical persons ? hierarchy. The absence of government? anarchy, &c. &c. &c.

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