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PARAGRAPH 487-ALIZARIN. Senator HEYBURN. That would defeat the purpose of this new system of paying the expenses of the Government out of the income tax, would it not?

Mr. ERWIN. How is that?

Senator HEYBURN. That would utterly defeat the proposed system of maintaining this Government out of the income taxes. If you have no incomes, you would not pay any taxes.

Mr. Erwin. I do not know but that it would be safer for our association to guard against complications. I do not know that we could properly enter into that.

Senator HEYBURN. That is merely a suggestion that occurs to me.

Mr. Erwin. I am sure you could handle that on the Senate floor better than I could handle it before this committee. (Laughter.)

Senator HEYBURN. We will have to take our chances on that. I will probably have to handle it there.

Mr. Erwin. I am sure, sir, that you will.

Now, gentlemen, Mr. Cone has brought forcibly before you a subject that is very near our hearts, and that is the question of a fabric known as denims. He has, perhaps, leit it to me to talk a little bit on a subject that I am sure you will hear me on, and that is this: Mr. Cone forgot, if he intended to do it, to tell you that denims are not in it alongside of a whole lot of garments like these indicating). A man has one pair of overalls, and if he is decent, he ought to have many shirts to wear with the pair of overalls. Here are the shirts (indicating]; and here are the fabrics that go into the shirts (indicating). You talk about the number of people employed, Senator, in making overalls. Why, so many more are employed in the manufacturing of the shirts

Senator HEYBURN. I intended to include both. I said “Garments."

Mr. Erwin. Yes. I beg your pardon, sir. Here is a child's garment (indicating); Here is a fabric right here that goes into everything except children's clothing and shirts, known as chambrays and cheviots, manufactured all over the country. You would be astonished at the extent of the manufacture. There is one factory, perhaps, manufacturing denims and another factory manufacturing this class of goods (indicating). I hope you will not ask me, Senator, how many are employed in that business. I am sure you will be content to know that there are hundreds of thousands, and we believe that is enough; but the number of people employed in the manufacture of these goods indicate nothing and means nothing in comparison to the hundreds and hundreds of thousands, and I believe I might say safely, millions who wear the garmente.

Senator HEYBURN. The important question is in connection with those engaged in making them, because if they were not making those goods or that cloth, the inquiry arises, What would they be doing to earn a livelihood?

Mr. Erwin. It pleases us very much to know that you desire to protect us to the extent of being able to exist, but I think further on you will protect the women and children all over the country who go to church in dresses made of these materials here; and that small additional cost, gentlemen, means much to them.

Senator HEYBURN. They would not be able to go to church if they did not earn something to feed themselves so that they would be strong enough to walk there. They would not be strong enough to walk to church if they did not earn something to feed themselves with.

Mr. ERWIN. I hope our committee can succeed in this hearing, Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, in impressing upon you that all of the burden put upon the manufacturer, means a burden upon the cutters, it means a burden upon the people who actually work in the sweatshops that you referred to--because many of these goods are made in the sweatshops--it means a burden that is not centered at one spot. While a great many of these mills are in New England and in the South, the people who cut the garments are distributed, and have wide distribution all over this country, and the output from these shops has a still wider field. While 74 per cent may seem to you an insignificant thing in the cost of the manufacture of these goods, and 10 per cent on that may seem a small thing

Senator HEYBURN. You may not probably have understood it, but I am a protective tariff man, and what I ask you is in the line of laying a foundation for facts upon which to argue for a protection of every necessary kind to the American people and the American market. *[Applause.)

Mr. Erwin. We are very glad to have that kind of expression from you. We are sure you will make you voice heard along that line, and we are glad to be so much encouraged.




Senator WILLIAMS. I hope you will allow one member of the committee to say that he is glad to hear you speak up for the consumer, and to have you call attention to the fact that the poor men, women, and children of this country who have to buy these clothes will have to pay more for them if this tax were put on.

Mr. Erwin. I felt sure, sir, that I would claim your attention on that line. [Laughter.]

Senator HEYBURN. Just there, I might make this suggestion. That these people for whom Senator Williams is solicitous and for whom I am solicitous wear these garments while they are earning their living making this class of garments which they wear, so they are both producers and consumers.

Mr. Erwin. I am glad to have that broad interpretation of it from you, sir.

Senator Williams. These clothes or something like them are worn by every darky on every southern cotton plantation, are they not-these blue-jean overalls?

Mr. Erwin. I think the black ones and the yellow ones and the white ones all wear them. [Laughter.]

Senator Williams. The carpenters, the blacksmith, and the brick mason all wear them; and these shirts are worn by the children of the workingmen and women all over the country.

Mr. Erwin. Senator, they wear better than anything else.
Senator Williams. That is what I say.
Mr. Erwin. They wear them, first, because they are the cheapest garment they can

Senator Williams. And the people who work in the cotton factories do not wear any more of them than the working people outside of the cotton factories, do they?

Mr. ERWIN. How is that?

Senator Williams. The people who work in the cotton factories do not wear any more of them than the working people outside of the cotton factories, do they?

Mr. Erwin. There are not nearly so many people in the mills to wear them.

Senator WILLIAMS, So that this is a tax which, to whatever extent it might raise the price of the product, would affect the poorer classes of working people in and out of the factories all over the United States. Mr. Erwin. Unquestionably, sir-unquestionably.

Senator HEYBURN. And if the factories were to close down, I suppose that those people outside would wear cotton sacks, like they used to, would they not?

Mr. Erwin. I would not like to say that, sir. I think they would starve their stomachs a little bit down my way, and try to present a respectable front at all hazards.

Senator HEYBURN. But suppose they were not manufactured, where would they get them? You say you are right at the limit now of manufacturing? Suppose you passed the limit, and could not manufacture them. What would these people wear? Would they wear broadcloth?

Mr. Erwin. They will wear patched clothes, şir.

Senator HEYBURN. But that is only for a little length of time. What will they wear when the patches predominate? Will they wear broadcloth then?

Mr. Erwin. I should like to say to you, gentlemen, that the women and children in the coal fields, as well as the men digging in the mines, are among the very largest consumers of these goods; not only the shirts but the overalls. They are very large consumers of them in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and all over those parts of the United States. They are some of the very largest consumers of the goods. And strange to say, the people working in the cotton fields, the negroes and the white people as well, have found that this is the cheapest and best looking garment they can wear. Why, gentlemen, here is a fabric, and you will be astonished to see what å handsome piece of goods it is. That piece of goods, at retail, sells over the counter, dyed with indigo, for 71 cents.

Senator GALLINGER. That would make a good vest to go with a tuxedo. (Laughter.]

Mr. Erwin. Yes, sir. Here is a garment that is known as a gingham. Now, you have asked if there is any substitute for indigo in dyeing these goods. Why, pardon me for going over somewhat the questions that you asked Mr. Cone, but there is a substitute. Mark you, the only additional cost is the dye, you see. The same carding and the same spinning and the same weaving go into the goods in any event. If you fix it so that you can not put a good substantial color in the garment, it seems a shame; and much of that has been done, Senator, heretofore, to try to cheapen it.

Senator Williams. Any other cheap blue dye except indigo runs, does it not?



PARAGRAPH 487-ALIZARIN. Mr. Erwin. Except a very expensive one. Senator WILLIAMS. I say, any other cheap blue dye except indigo runs? Mr. Erwin. Yes, sir. It is fugitive; it goes away with the sunlight as well as with the wash.

Senator HEYBURN. It will last until they get out of theMr. Erwin. Perhaps. [Laughter.] And that is a point that we would like you to bear in mind, gentlemen, as affecting the people who wear these cheap fabrics--the shirts and the overalls and the dresses and the bonnets and every conceivable kind of garment that the people do wear. We believe, gentlemen, and I will say I know that some of my neighbors have been driven to manufacture this class of goods and this class of goods (indicating samples) out of a cheaper dye. Senator HEYBURN. What is that cheaper dye? Mr. Erwin. It is known in a general sense as aniline dyes. Senator HEYBURN. How much cheaper than indigo is that? Mr. Erwin. It is a good deal cheaper. But the trade now, Senator, has gotten to the point where they say: We will not have your goods unless they are dyed in this way because they are not satisfactory, and we, as manufacturers, do not desire t give them these cheaper dyes. We greatly prefer to give them a fast dye. We want you gentlemen to help us to do it. To treat the poor people that wear these garments right. That is what we are here to ask you for. It has always been on the free list and we ask you to let it stay there.

Senator HEYBURN. Those fast dyes will not come out on the body because of perspiration or anything of that kind; but the cheap dyes will? I suppose that is one difference. Mr. ERWIN. That is one difference; yes, sir. Senator HEYBURN. And the other is that the cheap dye will disappear and you will have merely a dirty-looking garment?

Mr. Erwin. It fades with the sunlight as well as with the wash. You know they are using some curious sorts of compounds now to wash with when they get in a hurry, and it will simply strip the garment of the color, almost. Senator HEYBURN. Are any of these pieces of cloth here dyed with aniline dyes? Mr. Erwin. No, sir. Senator HEYBURN. These are all fast dyes? Mr. Erwin. Yes, sir; and while I do not manufacture all of these--only a very few of them-I will guarantee, upon the statements of my brothers in arms, that they will stand the acid test. Put muriatic acid on it, and it will turn yellow.

Senator HEYBURN. They will not crock at all? They term it “crocking” among the practical men when the color comes out. It colors the skin. Mr. Erwin. Yes, sir. I hope you will not embarrass me now by letting me know that you, an old manufacturer, know more about this business than I do.

Senator HEYBURN. I am not an old manufacturer, but I have spent some thousands of dollars in buying this kind of stuff, and have had men wearing it for about 30 years, 80 I have some knowledge on the subject.

Mr. Erwin. I am not familiar with that term, Senator; but they call it "fast" and "fading" and that sort of thing.

Senator HEYBURN. There is a class of this material that comes into the mines and is sold much below the price of a better article; and when the men go into a wet mine wearing these garments and come out their skins are blue. It has crocked because of the perspiration.

Mr. Erwin. I will tell you that some time ago I had to send out some ticking made with aniline dyes, and it went away out West somewhere, where it was cut up into bathing suits, suits with very broad stripes; and after some of the boys came out after wearing these suits they found that they had left all the stripes right on their backs. Senator HEYBURN. They only had to buy one suit then. (Laughter.] Mr. Erwin. Just as they came out of the water, it was said that some policemen came along, and, seeing their stripes, immediately took charge of them. That was in Chicago.

Senator HEYBURN. You are referring to Chicago as "away out West,” are you? I just want to locate your geography,

Mr. Erwin. I think the garments were made farther out West and shipped over to Chicago for sale.

Now, gentlemen, I am very much obliged to you for hearing us on this subject. If there is any question that we can answer that you would like to ask, we shall be glad

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to answer it. We do not want to burden you with and take up too much of your time. We hope at least the facts presented by Mr. Cone will impress you with how wide a distribution these goods have, and how wide a consumption they have; and we sincerely trust and feel in looking at you, gentlemen, that if it were left to you the thing would be settled now, but since you have to thrash it out, if there is anything else we can give you to help to do it we are very glad, indeed, to do it.

I believe that is all you want to hear from me. If there are any questions you want to ask, I shall be glad to answer them. I am very much obliged, Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, for this hearing.

The CHAIRMAN. Senator Overman, have you anything more?
Senator OVERMAN, I think that is all.




Paragraph 6. Alizarin, natural or artificial, and dyes derived from alizarin or from anthracene, 10 per cent ad valorem.

Paragraph 38. Indigo, indigo extracts or pastes, and indigo carminated, 10 per cent ad valorem.


Washington, D. O. GENTLEMEN: Your memorialists, cotton manufacturers, makers of colored cotton fabrics, both for men's and women's wear, respectfully submit.

The present tariff law provides under the free list:

Paragraph 487. Alizarine, natural or artificial, and dyes derived from alizarine or from anthracene.

Paragraph 592. Indigo (meaning vegetable and synthetic).

We desire to protest against the taking of these from the free list and placing them on the dutiable list, for the following reasons:

(a) It increases the cost of manufacturing colored cotton goods in the United States.

We quote the following from report from Committee on Ways and Means submitted with H. R. 20182:

“In revising duties of the chemical schedule, the committee has given special attention to the textile industries, for reasons similar to those which prompted action in revising the duties on products related to the paper industry. The cotton and wool manufacturing industries are the largest consumers of chemicals in this country. It is specially desirable to reduce the duties on the chemical products in Schedule & used in the manufacture of these textiles."

This statement is quite in accord with the needs of the textile industry, but the act of taking these materials from the free list and placing them on the dutiable list would naturally have the opposite effect, for obviously it would increase the cost of manufacture by just this amount.

(6) An increase in the cost of these materials means, therefore, an increase in the price of colored cotton goods to the consumers in the United States. This is the first time in the history of the tariff legislation, as touching these articles, that a duty has ever been imposed upon these most important dyestuffs. They were on the free list under the various acts of 1883, 1890, 1894, 1897, and 1909. They are not now and never have been manufactured in the United States, so that there is no question of protection of any American industry involved.

(c) Standard of American colored cotton goods. The color standard of textiles is higher in the United States than in any other country in the world, and particularly so as regards the lower priced cotton fabrics for the masses, such as denims, used for workingmen's overalls, and ginghams, prints, etc., for women's wear. This condition, so favorable to this country, has been brought about very largely by the free entry of these fast colors since 1883. The reversal of this policy, after nearly 30 years, would indeed mark a backward step for the cotton industry.

(d) In the case of export trade, an advance in the cost of any of our raw materials adds to our burden and minimizes our opportunity to compete with foreign manufacturers in foreign markets.

PARAGRAPH 487-ALIZARIN. We petition that for these reasons indigo, as well as alizarine and anthracene dyes, be left upon the free list and that no change be made in these schedules from the present law. Very respectfully, American Printing Co., Fall River, Mass.; United States Finishing Co.,

New York, N. Y.; Apponaug Co., Apponaug, R. I.; The Garner Print Works & Bleachery, New York, N. Y.; Arnold Print Works, North Adams, Mass.; Windsor Print Works, North Adams, Mass.; Renfrew Manufacturing Co., North Adams, Mass.; Passaic Print Works, Passaic, N. J.; Liondale Bleach, Dye & Print Works (Inc.), Rockaway, N. J.; Algonquin Printing Co., Fall

River, Mass.;

Barnaby Manufacturing Co., Fall River, Mass., Seaconnet Mills, Fall River, Mass.; Mount Hope Finishing Co., North Dighton, Mass.; Solway Dyeing & Textile Co., Pawtucket, R. I.; S. H. Green Sons Corp., Riverpoint, R. I.; Cranston Print Works Co., Cranston, R. I.; Southbridge Printing Co., Sandersdale, Mass.; S. Slater & Sons, Webster, Mass.; Glenlyon Dye Works, Salyesville, R. I.; Nelson D. White & Sons, Winchendon, Mass.; White Brother, East Jaffrey, N. H.; Beacon Manufacturing Co., New Bedford, Mass.; Falls Co., Norwich, Conn.; Shetucket Co., Norwich, Conn.; Boston Manufacturing Co., Waltham, Mass.; Whittenton Manufacturing Co., Taunton, Mass.; Waltham Bly. & Dye Works, Waltham, Mass.; Le Roy Cotton Mills, Le Roy, N. Y.; Appleton Co., Lowell, Mass.; Bates Manufacturing Co., Lewiston, Me.; Cochrane Manufacturing Co., Malden, Mass.; J. L. Stifel & Sons, Wheeling, W. Va.; Massachusetts Cotton Mills, Lowell, Mass., and Lindale, Ga.; Merrimack Manufacturing Co., Lowell, Mass.; Great Falls Manufacturing Co., Great Falls, N. H.; Aberfoyle Manufacturing Co., Chester, Pa.; Galey & Lord Manufacturing Co., Chester, Pa.; Hope Mills Manufacturing Co., Hope Mills, N. C., and Philadelphia, Pa.; Parkhill Manufacturing Co., Fitchburg, Mass.

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New York, January 28, 1913. To the honorable CCMMITTEE ON WAYS AND MEANS,

Washington, D. C. GENTLEMEN: The purpose of this letter is to briefly call your attention to two paragraphs on the free list: Section 487, alizarine, natural or artificial, and dyes derived from alizarine or from anthracene; section 592, indigo (meaning vegetable and synthetic.)

We sell these products to the cotton, woolen, paper, leather, and paint industries in the United States; we make long-périod contracts and import against these contracts; the attached pro forma contract shows the obligation incurred by the buyer in making these contracts.

All these fast dyes have be on the free list under the tariff laws of 1883, 1890, 1894, 1897, and 1909. They are not manufactured in the

United States and never have heen and there is no question of protection involved. They were originally put upon the free list for a definite and specific purpose and they have been kept there for 30 years for like reasons.

The object of putting indigo, alizarine, and anthracene dyes on the free list was to enable the textile industry of the United States to produce coarse goods which were, Bo far as durability of color was concerned, equal not only to textile fabrics made in other countries but the highest grade of textiles made here.

The object of the manufacturers of these fast dyes was, from the very beginning, to place them within reach, as to cost, of the manufacturers of coarse cotton goods, for in no other way could a large consumption be secured.

To show how this end was finally reached we might instance the selling prices of indigo:

In 1894 it was 724 cente per pound f. o. b. New York; in 1896, 374 cents; in 1898, 31 cents; in 1899, 28 cents; in 1909, 18 cents; in 1912, 164 cents.

These low prices coupled with free entry brought about the result that was originally intended, i. e., the general use of fast colors for coarse goods.

The benefits derived from this might be summarized as follows: (1) Enabling the colored-goods cotton industry of the United States to produce coarse colored fabrics

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