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schools reported that the number of preparations for each teacher was considered.
How are classes equalized?
One school reported that classes were equalized by assigning pupils the first day of the new semester.
Sixteen schools reported that equalization was obtained by assigning to classes the pupils indicated by the programs before the new semester. Nine of the same schools reported that shifting from class to class, the first days of the semester, was used when necessary.
Four schools reported that classes were made equal in size by shifting from class to class during the first days of the semester.
How is room assignment provided for?
Four schools reported that assignments were made as far as possible so that a teacher might use the same room for all his classes. One school reported an endeavor to keep teachers on the one floor.
Eight schools reported assignment of the same room to a teacher and the allotment of rooms best fitted for the respective subjects.
One school reported assignments according to the fitness of the rooms for the subjects.
Six schools reported endeavors to assign the same room for all a teacher's subjects, to keep teachers from moving from floor to floor, and to allot rooms best fitted for certain subjects.
Do you take into account individual differences?
One school reported that it did not take into account the individual differences of pupils but that it occasionally formed a special section for very slow pupils.
Twenty schools reported assigning according to difference as indicated below:
Two schools—intelligence, school grade, standing in subject matter, judgment of teachers, and choice of career.
Two schools intelligence.
One school-intelligence, standing in subject matter, and judgment of teachers.
One school-intelligence and choice of career.
One school-school grade, standing in subject matter, and choice of career.
One school-school grade and choice of career.
To what extent or through what grades is the policy indicated in the above question followed?
Five schools did not answer the question.
Ten schools indicated that the policy of grouping according to the intelligence was followed in certain subjects in the lower grades in most cases to a limited extent.
One school reported the policy in respect to intelligence was followed through the ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grades.
Onc school reported according to intelligence in the tenth and eleventh grades in English and mathematics.
One school reported according to intelligence in all subjects where there are four or more sections.
One school reported mental grouping in first year English and algebra. Freshmen may take modern languages and dull pupils may not begin Latin the first year.
One school reported grouping throughout the school life of the pupil according to school grade and choice of career.
One school reported grouping according to school grade throughout the school life of the pupil. This while not indicated is most likely also true in all the schools reporting.
Have you a plan whereby the time of recitation for a section is changed from an early hour one day to a later hour on another day?
All schools answered, “ No."
The first step in schedule making is to secure information from the pupils concerning their elections for the next semester. To secure dependable information on this point it is necessary that teachers and pupils and parents be given much information concerning courses, curricula, college entrance requirement, cultural and vocational values in courses, etc.
One of the authors devised the following material in order to give a summary of the information needed for an intelligent choice of subjects.
So many of the high-school subjects are elective that it behooves students to relate their clections to their vocational plans. In order to assist students in this planning, the following suggestions have been prepared:
1. In addition to our required units in English and mathematics, pupils interested in any field of engineering should include in their high-school course the following elective subjects: Algebra 2; solid geometry, manual training 1, 2; physiography; geometry 1, 2; chemistry; physics; and two years of a foreign language.
2. Students interested in medicine or denistry should take these electives: Botany; chemistry; geometry 1, 2; physics 1; algebra 3; solid geometry and two years of Latin.
3. Students interested in forestry, agriculture, or horticulture should include these electives: Botany; physiography; chemistry; geometry 1, 2; physics; alge
bra 3; solid geometry; one year of manual training and all the agricultural work.
4. Students interested in law, journalism, diplomatic service, or public life should take three units of history; geometry 1, 2; considerable work in the language and some of the commercial courses.
5. Girls preparing to teach in the rural schools or to enter one of the normal colleges should include botany; home economics; geometry 1, 2; physics and music.
6. Students with indefinite vocational plans are advised to include in their course before the senior year at least two years of a foreign language, one year of history, one year of science, and one year of the manual arts' work.
7. All of our courses are given part or full credit by the leading normals, colleges, and universities. However, if you plan to enter a particular school, get acquainted with their requirements at once and plan your course with the advice of the principal.
8. Very few universities, colleges, or normal schools will admit pupils who have not completed 15 units including three years of English, two years of a foreign language, algebra, plane geometry, and one year of laboratory science.
9. If you are planning to take a college course, you should read and reread this sentence taken from the instructions issued by the University of Michigan: “ It is expected that the principal will recommend not every graduate, but only those whose ability, application, and scholarship are of such superior grade that the school is willing to stand sponsor for their success at the university.
This material has the advantage of being brief and concise and also that of raising the question of the value of the different school studies.
There are also numerous ways of aiding students in choosing their subjects of study as is shown by the following returns from 21 large high schools.
Two schools reported that pupils make their own selections.
Two other schools reported that pupils make their own selections to some extent and where choice is easy, that selections were made in consultation with the principal or assistant principal occasionally when the cases were difficult, that the pupils also consulted faculty advisers, and that to some extent selections were made by the home or legal guardians of the pupils.
The following schools reported that pupils made their selections in consultations with the indicated parties :
One school-principal, assistant principal, and grade principal.
One school-principal, assistant principal, faculty adviser, and home or legal guardian.
Two schools—principal and faculty adviser or home-room teacher.
One school-grade principal, faculty adviser, vocational counselor and home.
One school-grade principal, faculty adviser, and home (some. times).
One school-grade principal and faculty adviser.
In the smaller systems the chief administrative officers of the high school, either the principal or the superintendent, must act as the principal adviser of the pupils. Of course, the teachers can assist and the parent's help should be sought even though it may be of little or no value. Some principals send an open letter to parents inclosing a copy of printed material relating to the work offered in the high school. This is an excellent practice, and is likely to pave the way for a better understanding of the high school by the parents.
Byrne, Lee. A book on the high-school schedule. Educational Administra
tion and Supervision, 7:533–38, December, 1921.
Gives a review of Mr. Richardson's monograph. His suggested terminology is fitting. The writer discovered the lack of a common terminology among high-school administrators in making investigations for this paper. Mr. Byrne's terins, “ general schedule” and “pupil's schedule,” in place of “ program of studies," of " prograin of classes," have been accepted in this writing. Mr. Byrne gives the following as essential for good schedule making: "(1) A general schedule providing all legitimate curriculum combinations or a maximum number of these statistically most in demand, (2) a perfect equalization of sections, (3) availability for imme
diate operation of all classes the first day of the term." James, Alice M. Scientific program making. School Review, 25: 504–11, Sep
An account of the procedure followed in the Central High School, of Grand Rapids, Mich.
Johnson, Franklin W. The schedule of recitations. School Review, 29: 216–
28, March, 1921.
Advocates a committee of teachers to draw up a tally sheet showing the number of pupils electing each course for the next semester. This tally sheet would indicate the subjects and courses and numbers of divisions in each course to be offered. The schedule committee would have the assistance of session-room teachers or advisers.
Mr. Johnson recommends that the technical task of making the schedule be done by one person familiar with all the varying factors which enter into the problem. The following determining factors are mentioned: (1) Number of classrooms avail. able; (2) available study-room space; (3) number of teachers and their adaptability to the classes to which they are assigned ; (4) length and number of periods; (5) laboratory and shop periods; (6) classes meeting fewer than five times a week ; (7) subjects with only one section; (8) factor of fatigue; and (9) assembly period.
Marsh, John. Making a high-school program. Educational Administration and
Supervision, 6: 202–14, April, 1920.
This article gives the author's method, based on 15 years' experience in the English High School, Boston. His schedule provides for rotation of periods, with five
periods of varying length. Meier, A. G. Semester reorganization and program making in the Central
High School of St. Paul, Minn. School Review, 26: 249–58, April, 1918.
A good description of the procedure followed in the Central High School of St.
Paul, Minn. Rasey, Lee C. A program arrangement for mental groups. School Review,
p. 608-11, October, 1923.
An account of the practices followed in one school in solving some of the diffi
culties in schedule making arising from homogeneous grouping. Richardson, M. W. Making a high-school program. New York, World Book
Describes and details, in part, his methods used in the Girls' High School, of Boston. Mr. Richardson as headmaster has from all indications a homogeneous body of pupils as compared with the pupils of most of our metropolitan high schools.