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and application in civil engineering, mechanical engineering, and electrical engineering. Commercial subjects are: Industrial history; statistics; economic production; industrial management; personnel; safety and welfare; letters and reports; accounting; commercial law; banking and credit; corporation finance; advertising and selling; domestic and

foreign trade; and transportation. Gettysburg College. The listed subjects are not open to students in busi

ness administration or to those majoring in economics.. Lafayette College. Semester hours elective for business students: 0, 3; d, 3. Pennsylvania State College. Semester hours elective for business students:

Industrial accounts, 3; scientific management, 3; industrial organization, 3. Semester hours required of business students: Industrial management, 3. In the industrial engineering course students receive the same instruction in fundamental engineering and general subjects as is given to all of the engineering students of the other courses. The specialized industrial engineering subjects in the industrial engineering curriculum are: Organization; administration; time and motion study; safety engineering; industrial relations; personnel-including employment, industrial costs, factory planning, shop economics, manufacturing methods, purchasing, receiving and storing, routing and scheduling, production

control, and scientific management. University of Pennsylvania. Mechanical drawing, 3 hours. First offered

as an elective in 1921-22. University of Pittsburgh. Semester hours elective for business students :

a, 6; 6, 8; C, 8; d, 4; design, 4; power plants, 4; and automotive engi

neering, 8. RHODE ISLAND.

Brown University. Semester hours elective for business students: 6, 3;

C, 3; d, 12; e, 6; 9, 6; and industrial plants, 3. Applied mechanics, including hydraulics, not readily elective by students in business; may be

taken, however. Rhode Island State College. Has no business students. SOUTH DAKOTA.

University of South Dakota. Semester hours elective for business

students: a, 12; b, 6; drawing, 8; machinery analysis, 6; and d, 6.

Total not to exceed 24 semester hours. TENNESSEE.

University of Tennessee. Semester hours required of students taking

course in factory management: a, 6; 6, 3; C, 6; and e (steam engineer

ing), 3. These subjects were required in 1922. TEXAS.

University of Texas. Very few business students take engineering sub

jects. Such subjects are not required. A student may, if he desires, use his elective credits on any engineering subject for which he has the

prerequisites. UTAH.

University of Utah. Semester hours elective for business students: a,

10–18; 0, 9; d, 18; e, 6; f, 9; 9, 8. VERMONT.

University of Vermont. No provision for election of subjects in college

of engineering.

VIRGINIA.

University of Virginia. Elective for business students: One semester hour

in cost accounting as applied to engineering, and two semester hours in business administration for engineers. In addition 12 session hours taken at any time, of subjects a to g, inclusive, may be credited toward

a bachelor of science degree in commerce. Virginia Polytechnic Institute. Has no business course. Course in com

mercial engineering embraces a number of subjects in various branches

of engineering curricula. Washington and Lee University. No definite coordination of engineering

and commerce work and no course in commercial engineering. Students in commerce required to take one course at least in physical science, and permitted to take 18 semester hours electives. Engineering subjects are available as electives. Hopes to be able to offer next year

a regular curriculum course in commercial engineering. WASHINGTON.

State College of Washington. Semester hours elective for business

students: a, 9; 6, 4; C, 8; d, 14; e, 12–30; f, 18-32; 9, 28–32. WEST VIRGINIA.

West Virginia University. No formal curriculum, special school or de

partment for commerce. The department of economics has most of the business subjects. Students in this department are not expected to take the listed subjects, but for special cases such work might be permitted to

count. WISCONSIN.

Marquette University. Students do not take any of these subjects. University of Wisconsin. Electives in the college of engineering to the

extent of 20 credits permitted to juniors and seniors in the course in commerce. The only limitations on such electives is that the students

must have had the prerequisite for any subject elected. WYOMING.

University of Wyoming. About three hours in each year's work allowed

as electives in these subjects.

DISCUSSION. ERWIN H. SCHELL, Department of Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Our work in the field of business does not deter us from the prime activity of training engineers. We hope to develop administrative engineers in the course in engineering administration. Nineteen professional courses are offered by our institution. The work required during the first year is essentially the same for all courses and comprises the following subjects put in their order of time requirement: Chemistry, mathematics, physics, English and history, descriptive geometry, military science, elementary machine drawing, physical training, and mechanical drawing. At the close of the first year the student chooses his course, and if he elects engineering administration he has three options—civil, mechanical and electrical, and chemical engineering, and most of his time in the next three years will be spent upon these engineering subjects.

We thoroughly believe in instilling in these men the principles and practice of the scientific method, and we believe we can do it through the engineering courses far better than we can through the nonengineering courses. The subjects not strictly technical engineering which are included in the course in engineering administration are: Second year, accounting, English history, political economy, military science; third year, banking, English, industrial organization, industrial relations, report writing, securities and investments, and statistics; fourth year, business law, business management, cost accounting (thesis).

The following illustrations indicate course content of a purely engineering course and that in engineering administration. In both courses the nonengineering subjects are in the minority.

The following subjects are available in general option courses for purely engineering students: Marketing methods, production methods, investment finance, banking and finance, economics of corporations, business and patent law, English (contemporary literature), English (contemporary drama), informal public speaking, Lincoln and the period of the Civil War, political and social problems, the human factor in business, the engineering field, engineering publicity, appreciation of music, and international law and American foreign policy.

The subjects presented in mechanical engineering which are not presented to engineering administration students are: General studies, industrial plants, mechanics of engineering, mechanism of machines, dynamics of machines, forging, pattern making, and power-plant design.

The subjects which receive greater emphasis in mechanical engineering than in engineering administration are: Heat engineering, engineering laboratory; foundry, machine, and bench practice; political economy, machine design, mechanical engineering drawing, engineering electives, materials of engineering, and testing materials laboratory.

The subjects which receive equal emphasis are: Applied mechanics, physics, mechanism, elements of electrical engineering, machine drawing, hydraulics, hydraulic engineering, electrical engineering laboratory, and general engineering lectures.

The subjects receiving greater emphasis in engineering administration are: Thesis, surveying, electrical distribution and transmission of power, central stations, English, and report writing.

The subjects presented in engineering administration which are not presented in mechanical engineering are, with number of assigned hours: Accounting, 90; cost accounting, 110; banking, 80; securities and investments, 70; statistics, 50; industrial organization, 180; business law, 180; business management, 300; industrial relations, 80.

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HOURS EXERCISE E PREPN.

The following statistics were collected from graduates of this course of engineering administration. Members of the first group, graduating in 1917, are engaged in the following occupations: Administrative (president, vice president, treasurer, etc.), 4; executive (superintendents, managers, etc.), 8; functional (purchasing agents,

inspectors, etc.), 3; SECOND YEAR

technical staff

work, 7; manageTERMS

TERMS

ment staff work (which has to do with nonengineering problems), 4; clerical work (none a re operatives or apprentices), 1;

merchants, wholeMECHANICAL

ENGINEERING

sale and retail, 1; ENGINEERING

ADMINISTRATION

sales, advertising, and publicity management, 2; salesmen, agents, and representatives, 2; teachers, 4; and one in the United States Army.

Statistics from 306 students from all classes show the following occupational divisions: Administrative, 14; executive, 24; functional, 9; technical staff work, including research, 84; management staff work, including research, 53; clerical, 14; operatives and apprentices, 28; merchants, wholesale and retail, 4; sales, advertising, and publicity management, 16; salesmen. agents, and COMPARISON OF COURSES I AND X representatives, 46;

THIRD YEAR and teachers, 14. J. G. CALLAN, pro

TERMS

TERMS fessor of industrial management, Harvard University. In teaching business to engineers and engineering

100 to business students the question is one of re

MECHANICAL sults. Engineers may

ENGINEERING

ENGINEERING ADMINISTRATION manage, and often do. Business students practically never do their own engineering. There is a distinct relation between engineering and certain types of management, while that between business activities and engineering is of a totally different character. Wise teachers of engineering and of business alike realize that the world is full of millions of facts, and that the teaching of facts as facts is

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hopeless. It is necessary to present methods, to show typical facts in their typical relations. Related facts in either engineering or business are carefully selected to convey a certain developed aptitude and a certain broad attitude of mind, materially different in the two fields.

The spirit and content of engineering teaching is necessarily that which arises from a picture of the world as a place ruled by laws, relatively precise, and which follow exactly natural relations. Business training is that in which the outstanding foreground consists of man-made relations, underlain it is true by laws, such as economic laws, but rather remotely obeyed. When we deal with man-made relations, that is usually true; and the degree to which the laws are followed varies with different countries at different times. Prominent in every

FOURTH YEAR body's mind now is the business cycle. It

TERMS 3 500

TERMS may vary from 3 or

400 4 years to 10 or 12 years, and may be followed with some degree of precision and be therefore predictable, or it may not. A slowly building pic

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ture, or rather a

ENGINEERING ADMINISTRATION dramatization of life, is being built up on

· HOURS ASSIGNED TO NON- ENGINEERING SUBJECTS the one hand in the B-HOURS ASSIGNED TO THESIS (USUALLY NON-ENG.) mind of the engineer

MASS. INST. OF TECH and on the other in the mind of the business student. For the one, the engineer, a picture in which there are precise relations controlled, rather absolute conditions, and a somewhat hard and fast organization, not merely of the instrumentalities of production, but of men behind these instrumentalities; and in the mind of the business man, customs, and those human relations which can be swayed by eloquence, by approach, by all of the intangible and fourth-dimension things that make a business man successful. Therefore when we are supplementing the picture from an educational point of view rather than a pragmatic one, we should supply the wanting element.

The relations in business are relations of mind to mind. They contain much more of error and are dealing in a way with a harder problem. The engineering approach is, on the contrary, one kind of dealing of mind with matter. It has for the business student a particularly educational effect and value, in that the analogies and

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HOURS EXERCISE E- PREP'N.

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