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skrit and meant “ father” in that language. With the Greeks and the Romans, and with every modern nation as a rule, it carries the idea “ to create or to produce by the power of intellect.” It has also in it the idea “ generous," a certain nobility of character that would lead the individual to real service of mankind. It is the fourth activity that humanity has developed—the teacher, including the preacher; the lawgiver; the healer or the doctor; and the engineer, that profession which has kept man alive on the earth and will always keep him alive.

T. T. READ, chief of the information section, the United States Bureau of Mines, Washington, D. C. There are three fundamentalsto make men work; to make machines work; and to make processes work. The training in the technical school is largely devoted to niaking processes work. Less is devoted to making machines work, and still less to making men work. It is not only much easier to teach processes, but man is most likely to start with this. Our training dwells too much on processes and too little on the handling of men. There will be plenty of time for busines subjects in engineering education if we do not dwell too much on the less essential matters of the technical school life.

L. W. WALLACE, executive secretary of the Federated American Engineering Societies, Washington, D. C. It would seem that our universities have been teaching too much about how to make money and not enough along the lines of how to spend money; that they are spending too much for buildings and equipment and not enough for competent men to utilize the equipment. It may be that we have too much memorizing and not enough thinking or reasoning; that we have too much curriculum and not enough personality and force in the teaching staff. With improvement along these lines we may be better satisfied with the results of our educational institutions.

S. E. DOANE, chief engineer National Lamp Works, General Electric Co., Cleveland, Ohio. An educational experiment of the last 10 or 15 years that deals with the selection and training in industry of college-picked men should be of interest. Men with initiative, energy, and ambition were wanted. The engineering schools were selected because the courses were unpopular and hard, and frequently the men worked their way through college. The type of training was purely incidental. In order to get men for the electrical business it made little difference whether they were mechanicians or electricians. One of our best men came to us as an M. D. The fundamentals of engineering education are so nearly similar that it does not matter much to us who make specialists of these men or in what field in college they were specializing. Frequently men with engineering training gravitated to the sales department. They had ambitition and energy, strong bodies, and clear minds. They

were able to stand up and get through, and when they could choose they naturally drifted to the line of work for which they were particularly adapted. In addition to training the mind, education is a question of selecting men, of keeping their bodies in good shape, of giving them a chance after they get out of college to gravitate to the kind of work for which they are particularly adapted.


Dean P. F. WALKER, of the University of Kansas, chairman of the committee on resolutions, presented the following report:

I. Following the discussion that has been participated in freely by those in attendance at the sessions, the following statement is set forth embodying certain principles which the conference believes to be expressive of proper aims and purposes of educational institutions and industrial organizations here represented :

1. It is believed that the engineering profession will be advanced in honor and dignity and in its capacity to render a maximum of service to humanity if in the schools a substantial effort be made to impart to students an adequate conception of the broad field of action which is theirs in the realms of production, distribution, and finance.

2. It is submitted that the principal means for accomplishing this aim lies in a continuance of the sound and substantial work of the established schools, supplemented and broadened where practicable by instruction in economics and business subjects and in the basic principles of production or industrial engineering; in which, however, no specific curriculum additions are suggested beyond those recommended by the first conference in 1919.

3. It is recommended that established schools of commerce and business take under serious advisement the policy of supplementing standard curricula by the introduction of work in the elements of engineering, in order that more of the business men of the future may have a sympathetic understanding of construction problems that are fundamental to economic progress.

4. It is believed that much may be accomplished through more active researches in industrial and commercial lines to the end that systematic scientific methods may be applied in meeting the problems and needs of industry; this with special reference to the elimination of unnecessary wastes, the conservation of material and human resources, and the lessening of production costs of standard commodities of commerce.

5. The conference recommends that colleges of engineering and of business adopt the following procedure in developing business training of engineers and engineering training of business men:

(a) Secure the cooperation of industry in defining standard terminology and specifications of the requirements of industry.

(b) Analyze the specifications of the requirements of industry to determine what are the fundamentals that must be taught, and organize the instruction accordingly.

(c) Study and experiment with ways and means of discovering native bent and measuring proficiency, that every student may be guided into a career of maximum achievement.

6. We reaffirm the purpose of the committee on commercial engineering of the United States Bureau of Education, and recommend that conferences under the direction of the committee be held at regular intervals.

II. Whereas the Second Conference on Commercial Engineering has enjoyed the hospitality extended through, and very material cooperation of, the Carnegie Institute of Technology: Therefore be it

Resolved, by the conference in session assembled at Pittsburgh this 2d day of May, 1922—

1. That the thanks of the conference be extended to the Carnegie Institute and coordinate branches, all of its officers of administration and instruction, for the hospitality and services rendered.

2. That the especial thanks of the conference be extended to Doctor Hamerschlag, president of the Carnegie Institute of Technology, for his inspiring address and other acts of courtesy and cooperation;


3. That the thanks of the conference be extended to the students of the College of Fine Arts of the institute who so acceptably entertained our members at the theater on Monday evening.

By the committee: G. W. Dowrie, C. R. Mann, J. W. Roe, C. F. Scott, W. E. Wickenden, and P. F. Walker, chairman.

The report of the committee on resolutions was unanimously approved by the conference.


Group Conferences, 2 p. m.

The report of the group conferences is based upon longhand notes made by members of the conference and later confirmed by the speakers. For program of the group conferences, compare page 4.

GROUP 1, Dean Dowrie presiding. Dean DOWRIE stated that there are fundamentals in business training as well as in engineering; that engineers therefore need not less than 25 semester hours in business subjects for engineering. This may mean, he said, a post-senior year for engineering students who expect to go into executive lines.

C. R. JONES, dean, College of Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, W. Va. The engineers and the commercial group, in their endeavor to reach a common meeting point and to establish an effective working base for the solution of the general problem under discussion, must necessarily approach each other from opposite viewpoints. The engineer has a pretty definite idea of the finished product and knows about what an engineering executive must do or ought to be able to do, but he got his business training for the most part in the school of experience and finds it difficult to define exactly the type of courses and the subject matter that should be given to the student to produce the effect wanted.

Teachers in the commercial group have everything that the engineers lack and more, but have only a hazy idea of what the product should be, and consequently they find it extremely difficult to formulate a course for an engineer that shall have in it the desired basic training in business and still leave enough time for adequate training in the fundamental engineering subjects.

There is a demand for four types of courses with commercial subjects:

1. Some commercial work should be given in all of the standardized engineering courses, such as civil, mechanical, and electrical engineering. Such instruction is, and has been, given at nearly all institutions and is in most cases definitely required. The experience of teachers of engineering and the continued emphasis on the part of the employer class for thorough training in the “fundamentals"


indicate that the schools have gone to the extreme so far as commercial training is concerned in the old-time courses. The engineering schools have made no sacrifice in adding commercial instruction. It is not a good thing for any student to devote all of his time during the last two years of undergraduate work to purely technical and scientific study and investigation. He needs at least two or three hours per week of a different type to broaden his viewpoint and to serve as an antidote against too much specialization. Economic and commercial subjects fill this gap very admirably and have as much purely cultural value as any other general courses that could be chosen.

2. Commercial engineering courses have great possibilities. Time will prove their worth. They afford an opportunity for a student who has the proper natural qualification for a business career to get a fairly thorough, though limited, course in some phase of commercial work, business administration, transportation, etc., and still get those courses in science, mathematics, and engineering common to all courses in engineering, and perhaps some specialization in some one branch. The difficulty is to provide enough engineering training to enable him to take up the engineering side of the job, should later circumstances make it necessary or desirable.

3. Graduate courses in business administration for engineers or five or six year combined engineering and commercial courses can be framed to satisfy both groups to a reasonable degree, but their length and cost are limiting factors.

4. The course in industrial engineering, now considered a standard engineering course, with opportunity for courses in business administration and management.

From the standpoint of the engineer, the list of subjects outlined on the blackboard are all that should be included as required subjects in an industrial commercial course. In addition to these it would be advisable to permit some engineering electives along the line of the industry which the student proposes to enter.

L. M. McDERMOTT, head of department of commerce, College of Engineering and Commerce, Municipal University of Akron, Akron, Ohio. Our course in industrial engineering is a combination of commercial and engineering subjects with such subjects as mathematics, language, and English. The combination is favored by business men and engineers as marking a step forward. The extension courses are filled to capacity with factory employees. The course is hard and utilizes for classroom study the problems that come up in their daily work. Attendance has increased over 200 per cent in two years. Courses in accounting and business administration

8 Technical subjects for students of business : Freshman year-mathematics, chemistry, and physics ; sophomore year-industrial organization, drawing, and mechanics.

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