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laid its eggs, it used occasionally to sit, and from their hands. Mr. Burritt tells us that was not the least put about by the presence of Mr. Fox, of Tregedna, near Falmouth, by per. the family or strangers. It used to feed off severing kindness, has so won the affections of the same dish with the shoemaker. Robins the small birds, that they fly and hop about have taken up their abode even in stranger him when he calls; and Mr. Samuel Gurney, places than behind old tea-pots, and in water- on visiting Mr. Fox, "was perfectly astonished, ing.cans. They have built nests in saw-pits, on walking out into the garden, to see, on his on the beams of blacksmith's bellows, and in sounding a whistle, the birds come fluttering
the rigging of ships, sailing with them when round him. One robin was actually so tame, they went to sea.
that it picked a piece of bread out of Mr. For's But the most astonishing thing I have to mouth.” I hope every one will read, who has record of Master Bob is his affection for,
not already done so, the verses which James familiarity with, man. I have read of Montgomery, “the Christian poet," wrote on many persons who by whistling a call-note a Robin Redbreast that came to his prison would gather robins around them, enticing window every day when he was confined them to perch on their shoulders, and feed for truth's sake in York Castle, cheering
the dreary hours by its presence and its into the air. The quarryman soon dispatched song.
Then Bob entered the nest, and 'I have said Master Bob will defend his young having ascertained that his children were all brood against any enemy. One summer day, safe, flew on to a neighbouring branch, and a hewer of granite, belonging to Dalbeattie, piped a song of triumph and gratitude. was plying his vocation at Craignaie quarry, While this is being read, perhaps the snow when he was attracted to a certain spot by the lies deep upon the ground, and the flakes are cries of a bird in distress. Hurrying to the drifting against the window-panes; and sud
HE Esquimaux are that extraordi.
wears a wintry aspect, and the traces of its nary people who line the coasts of
presence are sparse indeed. The permanency the northern seas for nearly 5,000 of winter cannot be said to be interfered with, miles, from the Straits of Bellisle, where, even in the month of August, the frozen
far westward, to the North Pacific, subsoil is to be found everywhere at eighteen beyond Behring's Straits.
or twenty inches beneath the surface. Sum. Secluded from other tribes of the great mer influences of such a superficial character American continent, with whom they have but produce only a scanty vegetation. The stern little intercourse, they are not shut out from ascendancy of cold—as if repentant of having the care of Him whose “tender mercies are intermitted even for a moment its severityover all His works." They are singularly encroaches early on the brief summer. Towards adapted, in constitution and habits, to the the end of August, the keen east winds bring régions they inhabit, where even the summer the snow showers, and the new ice begins ra
Yet man remains behind, and women and
pidly to seal up the waters. The hardy rein. houses.”+ The following description of this deer, assembling themselves in large bands, singular architecture is taken from Sir W. E. begin to remove from these lands—too wintry Parry's “ Account of the Esquimaux of Melville even for them to more southern localities. Peninsula,” &c.
“The work is commenced by cutting from a drift of children brave a temperature too low for one hard and compact snow a number of oblong slabs, six of the hardiest of beasts.
or seven inches thick and about two feet in length, Unlike the unthinking Indians, the Esqui- and laying them edgewise on a level spot, also covered maux spend their short summer in diligent with snow, in a circular form, and of a diameter from provision of food against the winter. They eight to fifteen feet, proportioned to the number of waylay the deer, in their transit southward, occupants the hut is to contain. Upon this, as a founat narrow passes by the rivers or lakes; or,
dation, is laid a second tier of the same kind, but with armed with the katteelik, pursue the whale in
the pieces inclining a little inwards, and made to fit their light kayaks ; or retire for a season
closely to the lower slabs, and to each other, by running from the coast to the interior lakes, where the
a knife adroitly along the under part and sides. The
top of this tier is now prepared for the reception of a salmon abounds. In the beginning of Sep
third, by squaring it off smoothly with a knife; all tember they abandon their tents, and retreat which is dexterously performed by one man standing within their winter houses. Some of these are
within the circle, and receiving the blocks of snow of permanent construction, framed strongly of
from those employed in cutting them without. When drift-wood, or if this be not available, of the the wall has attained a height of four or five feet, it bones of whales, the whole covered thickly with leans so much inward as to appear as if about to tumble earth. A low door in the side, or a trap-door every moment; but the workmen still fearlessly lay from the roof in localities where the snow their blocks of snow upon it, until it is too high any lies deep, gives access to these windowless longer to furnish the materials to the builder in this babitations, in which a lamp, placed on a stone
manner. Of this he gives notice by cutting a hole in the centre of the timbered floor, serves to
close to the ground in that part where the door is
intended to be, which is near the south side, and give light and cook their food—a process by
through this the snow is now passed. Thus they conno means essential to these people, whose
tinue till they have brought the sides nearly to meet European name, Esquimaux, is by some thought in a perfect and well-constructed dome, sometimes to be a corruption of the Abenaki term,
nine or ten feet high in the centre; and this they take Eskimantik, which signifies 'eaters of raw considerable care in finishing, by fitting the last block flesh.
or key-stone very nicely in the centre, dropping it But even if drift timber, or the bones of into its place from the outside, though it is still done whales, be not available, there are other ma- by the man within. The people outside are in the terials to be found in these regions which
meantime occupied in throwing up snow with the suffice to the Esquimaux for the construction pooalleray, or snow-shovel, and in stuffing in little of a house. The snow which lies so thickly wedges of snow where holes have been accidentally
left. around is made subservient to his use. It is
“The builder next proceeds to let himself out by this which enables him, with the approach of
enlarging the proposed doorway into the form of a spring, when the hard-frozen stock of food,
Gothic arch three feet high, and two feet and a half the results of his summer labours, is nearly wide at the bottom, communicating with which they exhausted, to move seaward on the ice to hunt
construct two passages, each from ten to twelve feet the seal. At that season-when the intensity long and from four to five feet in height, the lowest of the cold precludes the use of tents, and the being that next the hut. The roofs of these passages shifting nature of his occupation is irrecon. are sometimes arched, but more generally made flat cileable with any permanent habitation—the by slabs laid on horizontally. In first digging the szow house precisely responds to his require. snow for building the hut, they take it principally ments, combining facility of erection with
from the part where the passages are to be made, sufficiency of warmth.
which purposely brings the floor of the latter conunder the influence of keen winds and frosts,
siderably lower than that of the hut, but in no part do
dig has become firmly indurated, and, as light as it is hard, presents an admirable building ma
hut, if a single apartment only be required; but if, on terial, “ with which the Esquimaux master
account of relationship, or from any other cause, mason erects most comfortable dome-shaped feveral families are to reside under one roof, the pas* Fide Frontispiece, showing the mode of carrying the
sages are made common to all, and the first apartment kayak.
† Vide Frontispiece.
the work just described completes the walls of a
-in that case made smaller—forms a kind of ante- reception of any wet things, and is usually loaded with chamber, from which you go through an arched door- | boots, shoes, and mittens. way, five feet high, into the inhabited apartments. “With all the lamps lighted, and the hut full of When there are three of these, which is generally the people and dogs, a thermometer placed on the net over case, the whole building, with its adjacent passages, the fire indicated a temperature of 38° ; when removed forms a tolerably regular cross.
two or three feet from this situation, it fell to 31°, and “For the admission of light into the huts, a round placed close to the wall stood at 23°——the temperature hole is cut on one side of the roof of each apartment, of the open air at the time being 25° below zero. A and a circular plate of ice, three or four inches thick greater degree of warmth than this produces extreme and two feet in diameter, let into it. The light is soft inconvenience by the dropping from the roofs. This and pleasant, like that transmitted through ground they endeavour to obviate by applying a little piece glass, and is quite sufficient for every purpose. When, of snow to the place from which a drop proceeds, and after some time, these edifices become surrounded by this adhering, is for a short time an effectual remedy; drift, it is only by the windows, as I have before but for several weeks in the spring, when the weather remarked, that they could be recognized as human is too warm for these edifices, and still too cold for habitations. It may, perhaps, then be imagined how tents, they suffer much on this account." singular is their external appearance at night, when they discover themselves only by a circular disc of The Esquimaux winter costume, at the light transmitted through the windows from the lamps Whale-fish Islands, is amusingly described in within.
M'Dougall's “Voyage of the Resolute to the “The next thing to be done is to raise a bank of Arctic Regions in Search of Sir John snow, two feet and a half high, all round the interior Franklin.” of each apartment, except on the side next the door This bank, which is neatly squared off, forms their
“The men are clad in jackets and trousers, made beds and fireplace, the former occupying the sides, and
out of the skins of the deer or seal, and in the absence the latter the end opposite the door. The passage left
of caps have attached a hood to the former article of open up to the fireplace is between three and four feet clothing. Their mittens and boots are made of the wide. The beds are arranged by first covering the
same material. snow with a quantity of small stones, over which are
“The costume of the women is the strangest I ever laid their paddles, tent-poles, and some blades of whale- saw, excepting that of the Bloomers, which is bone; above these they place a number of little pieces nothing more than a modified Esquimaux dress. of network, made of thin slips of whalebone; and,
“It concists of a sealskin frock and trousers, or lastly, a quantity of twigs of birch and of the Andromeda rather drawers (for they do not come within six tetragona. Their deer-skins, which are very numerous,
inches of the knee) and are ornamented down the sides can now be spread without risk of their touching the by strips of brigbtly dyed leather. enow; and such a bed is capable of affording, not “Their hair, which is of a glossy black, is carefully merely comfort, but luxurious repose, in spite of the turned up to the back of the head, and there secured rigour of the climate. The skins thus used as blankets in a peculiar knot by a piece of ribbon, the colour are made of a large size, and bordered, like some of serving to identify the social position of the wearer. the jackets, with a fringe of long narrow slips of
The maidens are distinguished by a red ribbon only, leather, in which stato a blanket is called kēipik. whilst the married women, being, I presume, 'the
“The fire belonging to each family consists of a better horse,' wear any colour they please : the fact of single lamp or shallow vessel of lapis ollaris, its form their wearing breeches tends to confirm this supposibeing the lesser segment of a circle. The wick, com
tion." posed of dry moss rubbed between the hands till it is quite inflammable, is disposed along the edge of the
In providing for their physical wants, these lamp on the straight side, and a greater or smaller people display much ingenuity, courage, and quantity lighted, according to the heat required or the patient endurance of fatigue. In daily peril fuel that can be afforded. When the whole length of they seek the food which is needed for this this, which is sometimes above eighteen inches, is life; and in their light kayaks go forth to con. kindled, it affords a most brilliant and beautiful light, tend with the walrus, which when wounded without any perceptible smoke or any offensive smell. often turns with fury on bis aggressor; or, in The lamp is made to supply itself with oil by sus- pursuit of the seal, entrust themselves to the pending a long thin slice of whale, seal, or sea-horse
treacherous ice, which not unfrequently, yieldblubber near the flame, the warmth of which causes
ing to the power of the tide, breaks off from the oil to drip into the vessel until the whole is ex
the main floe, and is swept away into the sea. tracted. Immediately over the lamp is fixed a rude
Yet, fearless and inured to hazard, they pursue and rickety frame-work of wood, from which their pots are suspended, and serving also to sustain a large
their customary toil. hoop of bone, having a net stretched tight within it.
As the winter draws towards its termination, This contrivance, called innetat, is intended for the and their stock of provisions decreases, the