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necessity of fresh supplies becomes apparent. are singular. He inserts into the snow little The practised eye of the Esquimaux perceives forked sticks, on which depositing his spears, on the level surface of the ice a small elevation, lines, and other implements, he is enabled to in shape and size such as the mole throws up move them in silence as he wants them. He in pasture lands. It is the work of the seal, makes use, also, of a little instrument called who is forming for himself a breathing hole in keipkuttuk, formed of a slender piece of bone the ice. There the native stations himself, nicely rounded, and having a point at one end, building in the first instance a snow-wall about and a knob or laniard at the other. This is four feet high, to shelter him from the cold thrust through the ice. Delicate in its forma. wind. His precautions against the least noise tion as fine wire, it escapes the observation of

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the seal, while the movement of that portion The capture of a walrus, after a season of of it which is above the surface indicates to scarcity, is the occasion of intense excitement the fisherman that the animal is at work. His in an Esquimaux village. Every lamp swims spears are of different kinds, increasing in with oil; the huts become a blaze of light; strength and power according to the prey he and the cutting up of the spoil is a scene of has to contend with. These spears are tipped joyous festivity, terminating too frequently in with the point of the narwhal's horn. But the gluttony of a most disgusting character. most curious portion of them is an appendage Sickness follows as the result, and death called siātko, consisting of a piece of bone three removes many. inches long, and having a point of iron at one The filthy habits of the people form a painful end, and at the other end a small hole, or feature in their character. Mr. M‘Dougall's socket, to receive the point of the spear. description of what he witnessed at Cape York Through the middle of this instrument is must close our present paper :secured the õllek, or line of thong, of which “The natives received us without betraying every man bas, when sealing, a couple of coils, any great degree of interest or curiosity. The each from four to six fathoms long, hanging at shape of their garments, made of bear and deer his back. These are made of the skin of the skins, was essentially the same as their more oguke, the larger seal, as in Greenland, and southern neighbours, but they outvied all we are admirably adapted to the purpose, both on had previously seen in want of cleanliness, and account of their strength, and the property were, without exception, the most disgusting, which they possess of preserving their plia filthy race of human beings it has been my lot bility even in the most intense frost. When to encounter. the spear is about to be used, the siātko is "The men might possibly at some remote fitted on its point. In this situation it is re- period have indulged in a wash, but it is my tained by bringing the allek tight down, and firm conviction that the boys, apparently ten fastening it round the middle of the staff by or twelve years old, had never undergone any. what seamen call a slippery hitch,” which thing in the form of an ablutionary process. may instantly be disengaged by pulling on the It is, however, almost impossible to convey an other end of the line. As soon as the spear idea of the personal appearance of these de. has been thrown, and the animal struck, the graded creatures, who, though to us objects of siātko is thus purposely separated, and, being commiseration, were by no means of that slung by the middle, now performs very effec- opinion themselves. tually the important office of a barb, by turn. “It was from this place that Erasmus York ing at right angles to the direction in which it was, with his own consent, taken on board the has entered the orifice.

Assistance, Captain Ommanney, in August Thus armed, the Esquimaux watches until 1850. He was brought to England, and eduthe ice becomes so thin that the blowing of the cated at St. Augustine's College, Canterbury. seal is distinctly heard, when he drives his In 1855 he was sent to Newfoundland, with a spear through the thin crust into the animal, view of being useful among the Esquimaux of whose labours have thus facilitated its own Labrador; but he died the following year of destruction. With his panna, or iron knife, consumption. He was of a mild and amiable which is straight, flat, pointed at the end, disposition, and made himself everywhere beground equally sharp at both edges, and firmly loved by his warm and single-hearted affection secured in a handle of bone or wood, he cuts for all who were kind to him. away the ice so as to secure his prey. The "Naturally supposing his friends would make neitiek is the only seal killed in this manner, eager inquiries concerning their absent rela. and, being the smallest, is held while strug- tive, one of the officers had considerately kept gling, either simply by the hand, or by putting an Illustrated London News, with the portrait the line round a spear with the point stuck into of York, for the express purpose of showing it the ice. For the oguke the line is passed to these poor people, in the event of communi. round a man's leg or arm; and for a walrus, cating with them; but they appeared to have round his body, his feet being at the same time forgotten him, and although his native name firmly set against a hummock of ice, in which was pronounced, they repeated it without any position these people can, from habit, hold emotion. This want of curiosity respecting against a very heavy strain.*

him surprised us, for they must have imagined • Vide Frontispiece.

we were the same vessels by. the presence of

the steamers, which appeared to fix their a quantity of putrid seal flesh and intestines, attention,

sending forth an offensive smell. "The so-called village consisted of three seal. “We, of course, considered this to be the skin tents erected on the inner slope of Cape refuse on which, probably, the dogs were fed ; York, close beside a huge glacier. The inha- but were soon enlightened by seeing one of the bitants consisted of two old women, and three ancient ladies take a portion of the entrails, younger and more comely women, each with a and swallow a quantity of it as Italians do child at her back, whom we presumed were the maccaroni. Being, however, of considerable wives of the only three men we observed. length, she was unable to swallow the whole, Besides these, there were nine children of dif. and therefore contented herself with a foot or ferent ages, all as healthy as they were dirty. two, which was severed with a knife. This

"The appearance of the interior of the tents feat completed our disgust; and after the was quite in keeping with their persons. The captain had distributed a few presents, we skins strewn around were anything but in- retraced our steps towards the boats, pitying riting, and although not very fastidious, it in our inmost hearts the sad lot of these poor would take a considerable time to reconcile one wretches, whose only means of subsistence to the thoughts of seeking repose amongst so must be very precarious; for, having no boats, much filth. Strewn around on the outside of they are necessitated to trust to killing their the tents were bones of birds and seals, besides prey between the cracks in the ice."


HE German city of Nuremberg has ! Be this as it may, however, there have been

always claimed the invention of pocket watches made of many sizes and many shapes. clocks, as watches were first named ; There have been skull watches, tulip, apple,

and the fact that they were, in early rose, giant watches, and liliputian watches. times, called Nuremberg eggs, from their shape : In the Exhibition of 1851, a Mr. Funnel, of being oval, and that this town stood pre-emi. Brighton, exhibited a small lever watch of no nent for the numbers and quality of its watches, more diameter than that of a three-halfpenny seems to favour if not quite to justify the piece. A rose watch of the greatest beauty claim, which goes back to the year 1477. Blois, was exhibited by Mr. Jones, of the Strand. A in France, however, also claims the merit of century ago, Mr. Arnold, also of the Strand, the invention, and so does China, which is said presented to George III. a repeating watch to have introduced the invention into Germany, of his own manufacture, set in a ring. The whence it passed to France, and thence into size of this curiosity did not exceed that of a England.

twopenny-piece, although it contained one The invention of this instrument was the hundred and twenty different parts, which culminating point of horometry, and it was altogether did not weigh more than five pennydeveloped out of the increasing needs and ex. weights, seven grains, and three-fourths; the periences of mankind. A volume might be tools employed in its manufacture had to be written about the steps of the delicate art all made for it, and the watch contained the which, in due order, shaped and applied the first ruby cylinder ever made. The King was coiled spring, the spiral balance spring, so pleased with it that he presented Mr. Arnold the repeating movement, the varied escape- with five hundred guineas as a recognition of ments, the jewelled pivots, and all the other his skill. Some time after, the Emperor of mechanisms that are now combined in a good Russia, having heard of this wateh, offered watch-an instrument

which, although it is so Arnold a thousand guineas if he would make small that it may be hidden from view in a another like it for him, but Arnold declined lady's hand, represents the consolidated genius the commission, that he might not depreciate of the horologists of four centuries.

the value of his own gift to his own Sovereign.

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HE Arch of Titus was raised to com. showing by the introduction of the word divo,

memorate the capture of Jerusalem, or" divine," that it was erected 'after the death and in honour of the captor, by the of Titus, "the delight of the human race,"

Senate and common people. It stands and probably by his successor, Domitian. It on the Summa Sacra Viâ, or highest point of runs thus : the Sacred Way. Not only is it the most elegant

SENATVS. POPVLVSQVE. ROMANVS. DIXO, TITO. of all the triumphal arches, but as a record of Scripture history it has rightly been called

VESPASIANO. AVGVSTO." one of the most interesting ruins in Rome.”

It consists of a single splendid arch of white The bas-reliefs on the piers under the arch marble, with fluted columns of the Composite are highly interesting. You may see on the order on each side. It is covered with elabo- one side a procession of Roman soldiers rate sculptures. Those of the frieze represent bearing the precious spoils from the Temple a procession of warriors leading oxen to the of Jerusalem, among which may be recognized sacrifice; on the key-stone is the figure of a the golden table, the silver trumpets, and the Roman warrior, nearly perfect. On the attic, seven-branched candlestick of massive gold, he who runs may read the original inscription, which fell into the Tiber from the Milvian bridge during the flight of Maxentius, after panels and roses; a bas-relief in the centre his defeat by Constantine on the Via Flaminia. represents the apotheosis of Titus.

“The size of this candle-stick, as here repre- The length of the arch is 49 feet; its breadth sented, appears to be nearly a man's height; | 163 feet; its whole height is equal to its length. so that, both in size and form, these bas-reliefs Above the entablature is an Attic order perfectly correspond with the description of 12 feet high. The arch is semicircular, and Josephus, and are the only authentic repre- springs from a horizontal moulding called the sentations of these sacred objects.”

impost, which crosses the front of the building On the other side, the emperor is shown, at about 22 feet from the ground. The height crowned by victory, seated in his triumphal car of the Composite marble columns which flank drawn by four horses, and surrounded by the arch is 22:065 feet. They stand on Romans carrying the fasces, and soldiers and pedestals 9 feet high.* citizens waving branches of laurel. The vault

• "Triumphs of Ancient Architecture : Greece and Rome." of the arch is richly ornamented with sunk London : T. Nelson and Sons. See Review, page 116,

Songs of the Garden.


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