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spot for his nest, he seems to consider a certain and are yellow when first placed in the nets area around as his own especial property, and but deepen in colour as they approach mawill not suffer any other fish to intrude within turity. its limits. His boldness is astonishing; for Sometimes the Stickleback becomes rather he will dash at a fish of ten times his size, eccentric in its architecture, and builds in and, by dint of his fierce onset and his bristling very curious situations. Mr. Couch, the wellspears, drive the enemy away. Even if a stick known ichthyologist, mentions a case where a be placed within the sacred circle, he will dart pair of Sticklebacks had made their nests "in at it, repeating the assault as often as the the loose end of a rope, from which the sepastick may trespass upon his domains. Within rated strands hung out about a yard from the this limit, therefore, he must seek materials surface, over a depth of four or five fathoms, for his nest, as he can hardly move for six and to which the materials could only have inches beyond it without intruding upon the been brought, of course in the mouth of the grounds of another fish. This right of pro- fish, from a distance of about thirty feet. perty only seems to extend along the banks They were formed of the usual aggregation of and a few inches outwards, the centre of the the finer sorts of green and red seaweed, but stream or ditch being common property. Along they were so matted together in the hollow the bank, however, where vegetation is most formed by the untwisted strands of the rope, luxuriant, there is scarcely a foot of space that the mass constituted an oblong ball, of that is not occupied by some Stickleback, and nearly the size of the fish, in which had been jealously guarded by him.

deposited the scattered assemblage of spawn, Although the nests of the Stickleback are and which was bound into shape with a thread plentiful enough, they are not so familiar to of animal substance, which was passed through the public as might be expected-principally and through in various directions, while the because they are very inconspicuous; and few rope itself formed an outside covering to the of the uninitiated would know what they were, whole.” even if they were pointed out. Being of such "As a general fact,” writes Mr. Wood, in very delicate materials, and but loosely hung whose recent work, “ Homes without Hands," together, they will not retain their form when much additional information will be found, removed from the water, but fall together in the flesh of the Stickleback is despised as an an undistinguishable mass, like a coil of article of food, but in my opinion wrongly so. tangled thread that had been soaked in water I have often partaken of these little fish fried, for a few weeks.

or even baked, and think them decidedly The materials of which the nest is made palatable-delicate, crisp, and well-flavoured, are extremely variable, but they are always with the slightest possible dash of bitter, that constructed 80 as to harmonize with the gives a unique poignancy to the dish. At all surrounding objects, and thus to escape ordi- events, the young of the Stickleback and the nary observation. Sometimes it is made of minnow frequently do duty as whitebait, and bits of grass which have been blown into the guests never discover the deception. Yet the river, sometimes of straws, and some- there is hardly any place in England where times of growing plants. The object of the even the starving poor will condescend to eat nest is evident enough when the habits of the this delicate and nutritious little fish, which Stickleback are considered. As is the case can be scooped by thousands oat of any with many other fish, there no more de- streamlet, and does not require more trouble termined destroyers of Stickleback eggs than in cooking than the red herring.” the Sticklebacks themselves; and the nests The only use that at present seems to be are evidently constructed for the purpose of made of this fish is to spread it over the affording a resting place for the eggs until ground as manure, an office which it certainly they are hatched. If a few of these nests be fulfils admirably, but might, in all probability, removed from the water in a net, and the eggs be better employed in feeding man than ma. thrown into the stream, the Sticklebacks rush nuring his fields. An oil is sometimes ex. at them from all sides, and fight for them pressed from them, and the refuse carted off like boys scrambling for halfpence. The eggs to the fields, but the value of the oil seems are very small, barely the size dust-shot, hardly to repay the trouble of procuring it.


my uncle

EW houses in A-shire were more it may appear, my uncle's custom of reading pleasant to visit than

the daily paper during breakfast was every Ralph's. We have delightful recol- morning a source of annoyance to my aunt.

lections of the sunny morning-room She, like many old ladies, was a little bit of a -which would have been small, but for the doctor, and professed to disapprove of the habit large oriel window-in which we generally on sanitary principles. She said she considered passed the forenoon: and the old oak-panelled reading during meals interfered with digestion; library, with its deep recesses, and well-filled but I and my cousins, some of whom were shelves, where, when we were children, we generally to be found in my uncle's hospitable bad many a game of hide-and-seek. As we mansion, insisted that my aunt looked upon grew older, we learned to reverence the old a perusal of the papers as wanting in respect tomes; and one of our greatest pleasures was and attention to herself and the hissing urn to mount the ladder, and, searching among the over which she presided. higher shelves, bear down with triumph any One morning we were assembled in the oriel book of which the pictures betokened perilous window,arranging the sides of a croquet match, adventures, or hairbreath escapes.

when Aunt Sunnie entered the room, looking But if the interior of the house showed signs rather disturbed. of a refined taste and a bounteous purse, outside Auntie dear!” cried my lively cousin Hetty, these tokens were no less plainly visible. Its “there is but one cloud to be seen this morning, spacious pleasure-grounds, and richly stocked and that is on your face; what can have caused gardens, we only considered of secondary im. anything so unusual p” portance to the level and extensive croquet · Well, Hetty, the older I grow, the more I ground, which was the pride and delight of dislike, for various reasons, this habit of your our hearts.

uncle's, of reading during breakfast. I have And the owner of this beautiful place was just been wondering if the postman's appearwarm-hearted, hospitable Squire Ralph. For ance could not be delayed for half an hour. by this name he was known and called by Perhaps he might be induced to come by the every man, woman, and child, for miles around. high, instead of the low road, and thus he We even sometimes alleged that the very would not arrive till after breakfast." dogs and horses tried to make a sound like “Oh, aunt Sunnie, I am afraid that would his name. At his approach the dogs barked not do. We should be prosecuted for interand bounded, and by running round him, fering with her Majesty's mail, and besides," mumbling at his trousers, and thrusting them. added Hetty, looking slyly round,“ some other selves between his legs, did all they could to people would be disappointed as well as uncle; impede his progress. The horses pawed the but I have an idea. Suppose we try to take ground, whinneyed, shook their pretty manes, uncle's citadel by stratagem! What do you and in every artful way tried to attract his all say? Will you all help ?” attention. The Squire had a pleasant word • Agreed !” and “What fun!” cried a chorus and a kindly glance for every man and animal of voices. on the place, but his kindest smiles and most Thereupon we sat down to mature our plans, endearing expressions were reserved for his and finally arranged that every one at breakbright-eyed daughter Lilly.

fast should be supplied with a newspaper. Only less beloved than the Squire was his The following morning, when uncle Ralph wife. She was one of those people to whom appeared, instead of being met by the usual the very sun seemed partial; and the gloomier


“Good mornings!” a mumbled sound of the day, her face seemed the brighter. A little greeting was all that was heard from behind golden-haired boy laughingly called her Aunt the circle of open newspapers. He appeared Sunnie, and the name chung to her ever after- mystified at the aspect of affairs, but sat down wards.

saying nothing. Almost every one has some cause of irrita- Aunt Sunnie seemed bewildered, and untion, however small; and insignificant though certain whether to laugh or cry, but nobly

acted her part, keeping her eyes


the continuance of the siege. This we determined leading article, turned upside down.

to do, and next morning we commenced the Now, this new turn of affairs did not at all attack by throwing a shower of grape and suit my uncle, as he liked us to share his canister into the enemy's stronghold. feelings of joy or sorrow as to the ups and Hetty opened fire by reading aloud the downs of the money market; and to share in latest telegrams, and almost simultaneously his amusement at the idea of its being in- every piece of news of any importance was teresting to the inhabitants of Great Britain proclaimed, amid such a hubbub as rendered in general, to know that one of the Royal comprehension impossible. Princes walked, another rode, and another did My poor uncle could stand this no longer, something of equal national importance. but waving his handkerchief above his head as

Uncle Ralph continued reading the paper a token of capitulation, doubled up his paper, diligently during the consumption of one cup and laughingly threw it at Hetty, who passed of tea, but when he asked for a second he it on to Aunt Sunnie. We then all joined in threw the paper to one side, clearly showing the feu de joie of laughter which succeeded the that the assault had begun to take effect. surrender; and now, whenever we see our The hopes of the besieging party were fast good-natured uncle Ralph cast a longing rising, and Aunt Sunnie was looking radiant. glance towards the newspaper, we remind him

After breakfast, we held a council of war, of our stratagem, which never fails to have the and considered the aspect of affairs so hopeful, proper effect. that Hetty, as commander-in-chief, advised the



HERE is no account in existence of entire business it is to fasten the heads on the

the first pin that ever was made; but stems. But first, the making of the heads it is well known that in the olden demands a little attention. You see the little

time pins were made of boxwood, crown or head of a pin looks like a twisted bone, or silver. Now they are usually made turban; this is because the thin wire which of brass. Ten persons are generally employed forms the head is first twisted round a revolving to make one pin, but unitedly these can make axis. It requires great dexterity and care on 5,500 pins in eight hours. The first thing to the part of the workman to make it ready for be done in the making of a pin is to draw out the stem; and yet how quick and clever this a quantity of brass to a wire of the thickness workman must be, when he can make 5,500 of the pin to be made. When the wire has pins' heads ready in the course of an hour! been properly drawn out, it is wound up into When the heads have been properly prepared, coils of equal size; and then, to burn off any another workman takes them to fasten upon dirt or impure substance that may cling to it, the stems. This man is provided with a steel it is dipped into a mixture of acid and water. die, containing a hollow exactly the shape and After the wire has been thus cleaned, it is size of the pin's head. After dipping the stem straightened and cut into pieces of equal length. into a bowl containing a number of loose heads, These are then cut into shorter pieces by a he catches one upon the wire, and, slipping it

1 pair of large and powerful scissors worked by on to the proper end, it is instantly pressed in the foot. The next thing is to make points to the steel die so as to bring it to a proper these pieces, which is done by two revolving shape, but it is not firmly fastened until this wheels, much like those used by knife-grinders process has been repeated two or three times. in the street, only smaller, and made of steel After this, the pin has to be polished and instead of stone. When the points are all whitened, so that a great deal of additional sharpened, the wires being cut into the proper trouble is necessary before it is fit for a lady's length for pins, they are then ready to receive use. Doubtless those who share this trouble their heads, and for this purpose they are would question the propriety of wasting“ only placed in the hands of another workman, whose a pin.”

C. A. H. B.

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HE dress of the Esquimaux is made heads in cold weather. In winter they wear

of the skins of reindeer and of two jackets : the exterior one with the hair seals; the former for winter, the outside, the inner one with the hair next to latter for summer. The jacket is the body. Before the men enter into the main

round, with no opening in front or igloo, they take off the outer part of their behind, but is slipped on and off over the jackets, and place the same in a recess made head. It is close-fitting, but not tight. It in the snow wall of the passage-way. comes as low as the hips, and has sleeves Their breeches reach below the knee, and reaching to the wrists. The women have a are fastened with a string drawn tightly long tail to their coat, reaching nearly to the around the lower part of the waist. Those ground. These jackets are often very elabo- worn by the women are put on in three pieces, rately ornamented. Capt. Hall thus describes each leg and the body forming separate parts. the trimming of one: “ Across the neck of the The full winter dress for the feet consists of, jacket was a fringe of beads—eighty pendants 1st, long stockings of reindeer fur, with the of red, blue, black, and white glass beads, forty hair next the person; 2nd, socks of the eiderbeads on each string. Bowls of Britannia duck skins, with the feathers on and inside ; metal tea-spoons and table spoons were on the 3rd, socks of sealskin, with the hair outside ; lap hanging in front. A row of elongated lead 4th, kumings (native boots), with legs of that ran around the border of the tail. Six tuktoo, the fur outside, and the soles of vairs of Federal copper cents, of various dates, ookgook. were pendent down the middle of the tail ; All wear mittens, though the women geneand a huge brass bell, from an old-fashioned rally wear only one, and that on the right clock, was at the top of the row of cents.” hand; the left is drawn within the sleeve.

All the jackets have a hood made at the back, Finger-rings and head-bands of polished brass for carrying their children, or covering their also form part of the female costume.

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were they eating; and, thought I, What Curious indeed are the tastes and habits of

monstrous stomachs must these Esquimaux the Esquimaux regarding food.

have!' Yet I do not think, on the whole, they We are told that on one occasion, when Sir

eat more than white men. But the quantity Edward Parry wished for a portrait of one of

taken in one day-enough to last for several the women in the tribe, he could find no

days—is what astonishes me! They are, in present so acceptable for herself and her hus.

truth, a peculiar people. “God hath made band as a packet of candles, which they ate

of one blood all nations of men to dwell on with avidity; though he had the politeness to

the whole face of the earth, and hath deter. draw the wicks out of the lady's mouth whilst

mined the times before appointed, and the she swallowed the tallow.

bounds of their habitations. Take the Esqui. An intelligent young man, named Ayonkitt,

maux away from the Arctic regions—from the had been invited by Commander Lyon to dine

shores of the northern seas, and they would with him, shown how to use his knife and fork,

soon cease from the face of the earth. The and taught to wipe his mouth before drinking.

bounds of their habitations are fixed by the Afterwards he was conducted to wash his face

Eternal, and no one can change them. Thus and hands; and so anxious did he appear

these people live. afterwards to possess the cake of Windsor

“My opinion is, that the Esquimaux practice soap, that Lyon presented it to him; when, to

of eating their food raw is a good one—at least his utter amazement, Ayonkitt swallowed it,

for the better preservation of their health. To as if it had been a sugar-plum.

one educated otherwise, as we whites are, the This peculiarity of taste is sufficiently ac.

Esquimaux custom of feasting on uncooked counted for by the knowledge of what consti

meats is highly repulsive; but eating meats raw tutes the ordinary food of the people. Captain

or cooked is entirely a matter of education. As Hall gives the following interesting description

the twig is bent, the tree's inclined,' is an old of a native feast:

saw, as applicable to the common mind' of a A whale bad been captured by the George people in regard to the food they eat as to any. Henry's crew, and the natives gave every

thing else. When I saw the natives actually assistance in towing it alongside the ship. feasting on the raw flesh of the whale, I thought We of the white race were proud of our victory

to myself, 'Why cannot I do the same?' and over such a monster of the deep, and they of

the response to my question came rushing the darker skin were rejoiced at having aided

through my brain, independent of prejudice, in the capture of what would very soon give

*Because of my education-because of the them an immense quantity of black skin'

customs of my people from time immemorial.' and ‘krang' for food.

“As I stood upon the rocky shore, observing "The skin of the Mysticetus(Greenland whale)

the busy natives at work carving the monster is a great treat to the Esquimaux, who eat it

before me, my eye caught a group around one raw; and even before the whale was brought

of the vertebre, from which they were slicing to the ship, some of the skin, about twenty

and eating thin pieces of ligament that looked square feet, had, by permission, been consumed

white and delicious as the breast of a Thanks. by hungry natives. The 'black skin' is three- giving turkey! At once I made up my mind fourths of an inch thick, and looks like india

to join in partaking of the inviting (?) viande rubber. It is good eating in its raw state even

actually smoking in my sight. Taking from for a white man, as I know from experience;

the hands of Ugarng his seal-knife, I peeled but when boiled and soused in vinegar, it is

off a delicate slice of this spinal ligament, most excellent.

closed my eyes, and cried out, “Turkey!'. But "I afterwards saw the natives cutting up the

it would not go down so easy. Not because krang (meat) of the whale * into such huge

the stomach had posted up its sentinel to say, slices as their wives could carry; and as they

'No whale can come down here!' but because worked, so did they keep eating. Boat-load it was tougher than any bull beef of Christendom! after boat-load of this did they send over to

For half an hour I tried to masticate it, and the village, where several deposits were made

then found it was even tougher than when I upon islands in the vicinity. All day long began. At length I discovered I had been

making a mistake in the way to eat it. The • "The blood of this whale, a short time after its death, was rising 100° Fahrenheit. Forty-eight hours after, its krang

Esquimaux custom is to get as vast a piece was still quite warm."

into their distended mouths as they can cram,

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