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and then, boa constrictor-like, first lubricate warded in the early morning by hearing the it over, and so swallow it quite whole !

seal blow. In a moment more he captured it “When you are in Rome, do as the Romans by a well-directed aim of his spear. do.' Therefore I tried the Esquimaux plan, The seal weighed, I should say, about and succeeded; but that one trial was sufficient 200 lb., and was with young. According to at the time.

Innuit custom, an immediate invitation was "A day or two afterward I again went on given by the successful hunter's family for shore to where a portion of the whale's car. every one to attend a 'seal-feast.' This was cags remained.

speedily done, and our igloo was soon crowded. “The natives were so careful of the prize, that My station was on the dais, or bed-place, benumerous piles of stones, covering deposits of hind several Innuit women, but so that I could krang and blubber, were seen on the islands see over them and watch what was going on. around. This would seem to bespeak a pro. “ The first thing done was to consecrate the vident, instead of an improvident trait in their seal, the ceremony being to sprinkle water over character; but I am inclined to think the it, when the stalwart host and his assistant former is more the exception than the rule.

proceeded to separate the 'blanket'--that is, “One old woman kindly came to me and the blubber, with skin-from the solid meat offered a generous slice of the 'whale-gum' and skeleton of the seal. The body was then she was feasting on. Reaching out my hand, opened and the blood scooped out. This blood with one stroke of her "ood-loo' (a woman's is considered very precious, and forms an im. knife-an instrument like a mincing-knife) | portant item of the food largely consumed by she severed the white, fibrous strip quick as Esquimaux. Next came the liver, which was thought. It cut as old cheese. Its taste was cut into pieces and distributed all around, mylike unripe chestnuts, and its appearance like self getting and eating a share. Of course it cocoa-nut meat. But I cannot say this experi. was eaten raw--for this was a raw-meat feastment left me a very great admirer of whale's its eating being accompanied by taking into gum, though, if the struggle was for life, and the mouth at the same time a small portion of its preservation depended on the act, I would delicate white blubber, which answered the undoubtedly eat whale's gum until I got some- same as butter with bread. Then followed thing better to my liking."

distributing the ribs of the seal for social pickOn another occasion, Captain Hall describes ing. I joined in all this, doing as they did, a seal-feast :

and becoming quite an Innuit, save in the “One of the natives on his way to the ship quantity eaten. This I might challenge any discovered a seal-hole, but, being hurried for white man to do. No human stomach but an time, he merely erected a pile of snow near at Innuit's could possibly hold what I saw these hand, and squirted tobacco juice as a mark upon men and women devour. it. On his return he readily found the hole by “ Directly the feast was ended all the comthis mark, and he determined to try for the pany dispersed. Tookoolito then sent around prize by spending the night in attempting to bountiful gifts of seal-blubber for fire-lamps ; gain it. Accordingly, binding my shawl and

also some seal meat and blood. This is the various furs round his feet and legs, he took usual custom among the Innuits, and, unhis position, spear in hand, over the seal-hole.

doubtedly, is a virtue to be commended. They This hole was buried in two feet of snow, and share each other's successes, and bear each had been first detected by the keen sagacity other's wants. Generally, if it is found that of one of the dogs with him. While watching, one is short of provisions, it may be known he first thrust the spindle shank of the spear that all are. When one has a supply, all have.” a score of times down through the snow, until Sometimes the seal meat is cooked in a pan he finally hit the small aperture leading suspended for three or four hours over the firethrough the ice. It was a dark night, and this lamp. When it is ready, it is served up by made it the more difficult: for, in striking at a first giving each person a piece of the meat. seal, it will not do to miss the exact spot where This is followed by a dish of smoking-hot soup the animal comes to breathe-no, not by a -that is, the material in which the seal has quarter of an inch. But, to make sure of being been cooked. right when aiming, he put some dark tuktoo The seal meat is eaten by holding it in both hair directly over it, and thus, after patiently hands, the fingers and the dental “mill” supwatching the whole night long, he was re- plying the offices of both knife and fork.

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HOSPITALITY OF THE ESQUIMAUX. The hospitality of the Esquimaux is proverbial. Captain Hall has recorded several most gratifying instances of humane feeling evinced towards himself as a stranger in the land.” We must content ourselves for the present with a single quotation :

“For some time I had been suffering from painful boils, and September 3rd found me quite ill, and confined to my fur bed inside the tupic. I felt no inclination to eat until the kind

hearted Tweroong came in, with her pretty china tea-saucer full of golden salmon, smoking hot. The very sight of it made me better.

“ The next day, September 4th, I was still confined to my tent by sickness. The abscess on my shoulder had become so painful, that every remedy in my power to apply was resorted to. At length a salve formed of rein. deer tallow gave me some relief. During this time every kind attention was paid to me by the Innuit women, especially Tweroong, who

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three spars, forming a triangle. The sketch of One cheer was given, then another commenced, when, the saw and various ice instruments (page 213) lo! as if the noise had revived him, the brute, seemwill convey a better idea of their shapes and ingly with as many lives as a cat is said to have, went uses than pages filled with a written descrip- off again, running feebly, but still with some remaintion. “AMUSEMENTS ON THE ICE” during the ing vigour. Spears were now thrown at him by the long dreary months of detention so frequent natives, but these rebounded from his tough hide, in these regions, are of no slight importance.

proving as harmless to him as toothpicks.

“Once more he was down. Then raising his head, Leap-frog, cricket, and foot-ball are the

and looking round upon his foes, who numbered a favourite games of Arctic explorers. “THE

full score without including the dogs, he seemed as if DISCOVERY OF A BEAR” approaching the

preparing for the last fight and death-spring. It was vicinity of a party thus enjoying themselves,

a dangerous moment, and so all felt. But now was would doubtless give an agreeable change of the time for me to try my hand. Hitherto I had not occupation, in the efforts made to bring master fired. This, then, was the moment to do so. I stepped Bruin down. Captain Hall's account of his first out, and placed the hair-trigger as it should be, and encounter with a Polar Bear will be read with

levelled my gun. interest :

“Shoot at his head !' was the cry of those around;

but I watched my opportunity, and, when he gave a “I was engaged writing in my cabin, when a shout

certain downward throw of his head, fired, tapping the was heard on deck, 'A bear! a bear!' and immediately jugular vein. It was enough. One convulsive mov relinquishing my pen for the rifle, I went up and

ment, as the blood oozed out from the keen cut made joined a party who started in chase.

by my rifle ball, and the life of the polar bear was “The bear took a direction near the island where my ended. dogs had been placed, and the howling they made was

“ The next task was to get the carcass on board, and truly terrible.

at first we intended to drag it there. A line of suf“ Several of the crew had preceded us, and as we

ficient length was upon the ground, ready for placing neared one of the outer islands, about half a mile

round the bear's neck; but this was finally abanfrom the ship, bang went the first gun. Then a

doned, as his weight (near that of an ox) would break second report, and soon afterwards I could see the

through the treacherous ice around the island where bear retreating across a channel to another island. He

we were. It was then decided that the Esquimaux had received some severe wounds, for blood was pour

should skin the animal on the spot, quarter it, and thus ing out on either side of him, crimsoning his white

carry it piecemeal to the ship. Accordingly, we left coat and the ice beneath. The channel was covered

them to the task, and had not long been back to our over with ice that appeared too frail for us to make

cabins when the prize arrived, the carcass still smoking passage upon. Down through this ice every now and

hot, though the skin was already frozen stiff. then the bear would plunge. But soon returning to

“As regards the use made of our prize, I have only to the same hole, he slid himself out of it upon the ice in

say that we divided it with the Esquimaux, and had a a very sprawling, but to me interesting manner. Once

capital dinner off a portion of our share. I liked it out, he immediately rose upon his haunches, knocked

better than the best of beef-steaks." his tormentors (the Esquimaux dogs) to the right and left with his fore-paws, and then ran on. But the “ THE PURSUIT OF SCIENCE UNDER DIFFIdogs were again upon his track, surrounding and CULTIES” illustrates an incident recorded in cutting off his retreat to the shore. Thus we were

The Voyage of the Resolute” :soon up with him, though keeping at a respectful distance from the wounded prey. Charley, an Esqui- “Sunday, 23rd, at 1 a.m., the quartermaster went maux, desired to try his hand at my rifle, and know- outside on the floe, to register the thermometers, which ing he was a good marksman, I allowed him to do so. were kept in a box secured to a table. In the act of He fired as the bear was again on his haunches engaged reading off, his attention was attracted by a slight with the dogs. The shot took effect in his breast, and noise. His surprise may be imagined when, on lookthe brave beast fell kicking and tumbling; but, after a ing round, he observed a bear within five yards of moment's struggle, was once more on his feet, again him. His situation, to say the least of it, was not an flying away. Morgan, of our ship, now tried his enviable one, for one spring of the brute would have double-barrel, with three bullets in each, but both put an end to his registering thermometers for ever. barrels missed fire. Another shot was then fired, and Happily, however, the quartermaster (Silvey) had this time the bear tumbled over, as we all thought, sufficient presence of mind to throw the strong light dead. A cheer from us followed; but hardly had our of the lantern full on the face of the animal; it voices died away, when the poor beast was again on answered the purpose effectually, for Bruin (startled his feet, struggling to get off, white men, Esquimaux, by such an unusual aurora) beat a hasty retreat ; the and dogs all after him. Once more a heavy charge- alarm was immediately given, and two officers went this time from Morgan's gun-went into him, striking in pursuit, and traced him to the mass of hummocks his face and eyes, and down went Bruin dead again.' astern, where they lost the trail."

THE BASTILLE.

66

HROUGH a closely-pressed crowd, He was beheaded at the conclusion of his trial,

which filled the street of S. Antoine, in the first court of the prison.
in Paris, on the 22nd of April, 1369, The inhumanity of Louis XI. almost defies

moved a brilliant procession. At description. He was wont to amuse himself the head of it, on a prancing warhorse, rode by torturing animals, as well as his prisoners, King Charles V. of France, clad in armour. and to him the Bastille owed three dreadful

When the procession reached the gate of dungeons, called “cages de fer.” S. Antoine, the guild of masons received the These rooms were constructed like cages, king, and conducted him to an extensive ex- and consisted of beams or rafters lined with cavation. Here Hugo d’Aubriot, provost of iron plates. They were six feet broad, and the city of Paris, stood, with trowel, mortar, eight long; but, on account of the almost and hammer in hand, and with a prepared funnel-shaped form of the timbered floor, they speech greeted the king. Charles answered, formed a most tormenting abode. The inthat he came in armour because the work ventor of these cages was the Bishop of which was.to be begun would be in the service Verdun. of war; a work against the enemies of their

In fatherland; to hinder whose violence a new of Nemours, was cast into one of these cages, wall would be built around Paris, to be ter- charged with high treason. A letter, dated minated by a strong fortress--a Bastille January 30, 1477, is still found in the collecwhich should defend the entrance to the city, tion of the national archives, in which the the gate of S. Antoine. Then the foundation. | duke sends a petition to the king, beginning stone was laid. Shouts of joy resounded; and with the words, From my iron cage in the amid the huzzas of the excited crowd, the king Bastille.” Armagnac was at length beheaded; returned.

his children being compelled to be present at The gloomy, gigantic wall rose slowly, and his execution. the works were not completed till 1383. These prisoners of noble birth and name are Originally designed for the protection of the the only ones in the fifteenth century concernprincipal gate of Paris, the fortress was re- ing whose dreadful fate documents have been garded by the citizens as an object of the preserved. Not until later times do we become greatest interest. Hugo d’Aubriot directed aware of a complete and organized governand superintended the works. Bridges and ment in the Bastille.” For many years the strong houses were raised in conformity with proceedings appear to have been carefully conhis plans, and he it was who formed the first cealed. subterranean canal through the streets of The massive building, with its eight cirParis.

cular towers, presented an imposing spectacle, Little did he imagine that he would be the whether contemplated from the garden, or first victim of the dismal purpose to which from the street of S. Antoine. Designed at the fortress was afterwards devoted. Yet so first for the protection of the gate, which lay it proved. Hugo d’Aubriot is the first known behind, it was subsequently enclosed by the state prisoner whom the impenetrable vaults new walls which were erected in that part of of the Bastille received. Accused of heresy, the town, and the gate of S. Antoine was the gifted architect pined for many years in placed further back. The castle stood on the the subterranean dungeons of the building right shore of the Seine. The entrance to it which his own skill had erected.

was in the street of S. Antoine, where the Authentic records concerning the Bastille Boulevard Bourdon now is, along the canal of are very scanty. Many documents have been S. Martin, which is a remnant of the moat destroyed; but it appears tolerably certain that once surrounded the Bastille. that after D’Aubriot, it was not until the year The entire fortress consisted of eight towers, 1475 that another personage of importance which were united by buildings reaching to was confined in its dungeons. This was Louis their summits. The towers stood at almost of Luxembourg, Count of St. Pol and Con- equal distances apart; and formed, with their stable of France, who had offended Louis XI. intermediate buildings, two courts; the larger

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